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# DATA AND INFORMATION

## WHAT ARE DATA AND INFORMATION?

Data are raw facts. This means that when facts are collected about people, places, items, and events, animal and so on, data is obtained. Therefore data can be said to be the raw materials for producing information. Information is referred to as processed data, i.e. data that has gone through processing.

## TYPES OF DATA

1. Numeric: made up of only numbers e.g. 2013.
2. Alphanumeric: made up of letters and numbers e.g. S.S.1A
3. Pictorial: pictures, charts, drawings, videos, etc.
4. Symbolic: Made up of special characters e.g. ;,:,<,>, etc.
5. Boolean/Decision: in form of yes or no, True or False, 1 or 0.

## WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING?

Data processing is the conversion of DATA to INFORMATION.

DATA    →     PROCCESSING     →     INFORMATION

## ILLUSTRATION

Given that A = 3 and B = 7 {3 and 7 are data representing letters A and B}. Evaluate.

Information

1. A * B = 3*7 = 21.
2. A + B = 3+7 = 10.
3. B – A = 7-3 = 4.

[ 4, 10 and 21 are the information derived from processing the data above.]

## DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION

### DATA

1. Data is raw fact.
2. Data is not significant by itself.
3. Data is obtained through observations and recordings.

### INFORMATION

1. Information is processed.
2. Information is significant by itself.
3. Information is obtained analysis.

## EVALUATION:

1. Define the following terms; a) Data b) Information.
2. Identify the four data types available in the table below.
 Student I.D. Name Date of birth Score in Computer Studies Gender A 00022 Odi, G.A. 13/10/97 38 M C 00021 Zakari, M. 71 M B 00023 NgoziTella 62 F