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Chemistry

APPPLIED CHEMISTRY

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Chemical industry is define as one that uses chemistry to make chemicals from other chemical substances (raw materials) The important raw materials used in chemical industry include (i) air (ii) CaCO3 (iii) Sea water and rock salt (iv) Sulphur (v) Metallic mineral ore (vi) Coal          (vii) Natural gas and petroleum.   SOURCES OF […]

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Chemistry

HYDROCARBONS

HYDROCARBON AND CRUDE OIL Hydrocarbon are very simple organic compound composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon only. The sources of hydrocarbons are coal, natural gases and petroleum. Hydrocarbon can be divided into two main classes: Aliphatic hydrocarbon Aromatic hydrocarbon   ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON They are further divided into three groups: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes. The Aliphatic

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Chemistry

TRIOXOCARBONATE (iv) ACID

H2CO3 is formed when CO2(g) is dissolved in water. H2CO3 is a weak dibasic acid. It forms two series of salts: Normal trioxocarbonate (iv) Acidic hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv)   Normal trioxocarbonate (iv) Normal trioxocarbonate (iv) may be regarded as salts derived from H2CO3 by the complete replacement of the hydrogen by a metal or cationic

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Chemistry

COAL AND FUEL GASES

COAL Coal is an impure form of carbon. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with small amounts of nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus as impurities. Carbonization of coal. Coal was formed by the gradual decomposition of plant vegetation under pressure and in the absence of air. Carbon (iv)

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Chemistry

OXIDE OF CARBON

CARBON (iv) OXIDE The percentage composition of carbon (iv) oxide in the atmospheric air is about 0.03% by volume while in dissolved air is about 0.50% by volume.   Laboratory preparation Carbon (iv) oxide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute acids on a trioxocarbonate (iv) or a hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv). Usually

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Chemistry

BASES AND ALKALIS

A base is a substance which will neutralize an acid to yield a salt and water only. Most oxide and hydroxide of metals are bases e.g. Na2O, K2O, MgO, NaOH, KOH e.t.c. An alkalis is a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2. A basic oxide (or hydroxide) is a metallic oxide

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Chemistry

ALKANOLS

Alkanols is a homologous series with general molecular formula of CnH2n+1OH or ROH. The functional group in alkanols is the hydroxyl (-OH) group.   NOMENCLATURE The names of alkanols are obtained by substituting “e” in alkanes with “ol”. Example: Methanol – CH3OH, Ethanol – CH3CH2OH   CLASSIFICATION The alkanols are classified based on the number

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Chemistry

ALKYNES II

Alkynes are the homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbon with a general molecular formula CnH2n-2.

Alkynes show a high degree of unsaturation than alkenes, hence, they are chemically more reactive than the corresponding alkenes or alkanes.

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Chemistry

ALKENES I

UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS These are hydrocarbons in which carbon atoms join with each other by multiple bonds.  The multiple bonds can be double bonds e.gAlkenes or triple bonds e.gAlkynes.   NOMENCLATURE The process of naming in alkenes is obtained by substituting “ane” in alkane with ‘ene’ e.g Ethane changes to Ethene, propane to propene   LABORATORY

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Chemistry

ALKANES

The alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons. Their general molecular formula is CnH2n+2. Hence For n=1 CH4               Methane n=2 C2H6 Ethane n=3 C3H8 Propane n=4 C4H10 Butane n=5 C5H12 Pentane and so on. There is no functional group in the alkane series.   THE IUPAC NOMENCLATURE FOR ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS In IUPAC nomenclature, every name of organic compound

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Chemistry

INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds with the exception of compounds such as carbon (II) oxide, carbon (IV) oxide the trioxocarbonate (IV).Carbon has unique ability to form numerous organic compounds because it has ability to catenate. Catenation is the ability of atoms of an element to form bonds between its own atoms and

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Chemistry

ACID/BASE REACTIONS

TITRATION There are two types of quantitative analysis namely: volumetric and gravimetric analysis.  Volumetric analysis is based on volume measurement while gravimetric analysis involves direct mass measurement.   Volumetric analysis is carried art using Titration.  In titration, a standard solution (one of known concentration must be using be used to react with a solution of

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Chemistry

SOLUBILITY AND SOLUTIONS

A solution is a uniform or homogenous mixture of two or more substances. Solution = Solvent + Solute A solute is a dissolved substance which may be a solid, liquid or gas. A solvent is a substance (usually liquid) which dissolves a solute. TYPES OF SOLUTIONS Aqueous Solution: This is formed when a solute is

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Chemistry

WATER

Water is regarded as the universal solvent.  It is a good solvent for many substances.   SOURCES OF WATER The following are the sources of water: Natural water:Rainwater, Well water, Spring water and Sea water Treated water: Distilled water, Pipe – borne water and chlorinated water.   TYPES OF WATER Water is of two types

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Chemistry

COMPOUNDS OF SULPHUR

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE, H2S Hydrogen Sulphide is found in volcanic gases, Sulphur springs, coal gas and natural gas. LABORATORY PREPARATION Hydrogen Sulphide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute acids on metallic sulphide like Iron (II) Sulphide 2HCl(aq)    +    FeS(s) → FeCl2(aq) + H2S(g) The apparatus used for regular supply of hydrogen Sulphide

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Chemistry

COMPOUNDS OF NITROGEN

OXIDES OF NITROGEN NITROGEN (I) OXIDE, N2O Nitrogen (I) oxide is known as laughing gas as it causes uncontrollable laughter when inhaled. LABORATORY PREPARATION The gas is prepared in the laboratory by thermal decomposition of ammonium trioxonitrate (V). Ammonium trioxonitrate (V) is not heated directly since the reaction is exothermic and may become uncontrollable leading

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