SS 3 Biology (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

Civic Education

Political Apathy: Fighting, Forms of Political Apathy

Fighting the political apathy Political apathy, a prevalent phenomenon in contemporary society, encapsulates the passive and disengaged attitude or, in some cases, outright refusal of citizens to actively participate in the multifaceted realm of their state’s political affairs. This widespread phenomenon manifests itself through a conspicuous absence of enthusiasm, curiosity, and eagerness when it comes […]

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Biology

Evolution: Theories of Evolution, Jean Lamarck’s theories & Charles Darwin’s theory 

Theories of Evolution Organic Evolution Organic evolution is the sum total of adaptive changes from pre–existing or old forms that has taken place over a long time resulting in diversity of forms, structures and functions among organism. The basis of evolution is that all organisms have pre–existing ancestors. Evidences of Evolution Fossil record: A fossil

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Biology

Social Animals: Characteristics, Examples, Termites, Honey Bees,

Social animals are those in which individuals of the same species live together cooperatively in organized communities known as societies (colonies). Examples of social animals are: social insects (like termites, honey bees or wasps, ants etc), wolves, foxes, baboons etc. Characteristics of Social Insects They live together They display division of labour They show distinct

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Biology

Variation, Competition & Succession of Organisms

VARIATION IN POPULATION A population represents a dynamic assembly of organisms belonging to the same species, coexisting within a defined geographical region over a specific duration. This collection of individuals, whether of plants, animals, or microorganisms, forms a vital ecological unit that undergoes continual changes and interactions. Variation, on the other hand, encompasses the array

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Biology

GENETIC: HEREDITARY, TERMINOLOGY, MENDEL’S WORK, GENOTYPE & PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITARY

GENETIC TERMINOLOGY Genetics, the scientific study of heredity and variation in all living organisms, was termed by Dilliam Bateson in 1906. Heredity/Inheritance pertains to the passage and manifestation of traits from parents to offspring, accounting for the common resemblances between them. Variation encompasses the dissimilarities existing among parents, offspring, and siblings. Genes are hereditary units

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Biology

Reproductive Behaviours: Courtship Behaviour, Display of Colours & Seasonal Migration

Courtship Behaviour in Animals and Territoriality: Courtship behaviour in animals refers to a set of behaviours and displays that individuals of a species engage in to attract potential mates and establish a reproductive partnership. This behaviour often involves various signals, sounds, postures, and movements that communicate the fitness and availability of an individual for mating.

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Biology

Fruits : Types, Structure, Dispersal of Fruits, Agents of Dispersal of Fruits

STRUCTURE OF A FRUIT A fruit is a matured fertilized ovary of a flower containing one or more seeds. Contrary to this, some plants do not undergo fertilization for the formation of their fruit. Such fruits are called parthenocarpic fruits e.g. banana and pineapple. Such fruits are seedless. A typical fruit has the following parts

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The eyes

The Eyes | Anatomy, Functions, Problems, Solutions, Symptoms or Signs, Care For Eyes

The eyes are remarkable sensory organs that provide us with a sense of sight, allowing us to perceive the world around us in rich detail. Key Facts About The Eyes: 1. Complex Anatomy: The human eye is a complex structure made up of several components that work together to capture and process visual information. These

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Biology

Seeds | Zygotes, Conditions for Seed Germination, Formation & Seeds Germination

Development of Zygotes in Plants In flowering plants, the process of pollination is followed by fertilization, leading to the development of the zygote. This development eventually transforms the flower into a fruit that encloses the seeds. The male and female sex cells responsible for zygote formation are the pollen grain and the ovule, respectively. The

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Biology

Balance in Nature | Biotic Factors, Abiotic Factors, Family Planning & Birth Control

NATURAL DYNAMIC BALANCE: In the realm of nature, a state of dynamic equilibrium prevails. When environmental conditions influenced by population dynamics, encompassing both abiotic and biotic elements, are propitious, growth is encouraged. Conversely, when these conditions turn unfavourable, growth is hindered. A constraining element that curbs population expansion is termed a “limiting factor.” The amalgamation

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Biology

Kidney | Structure, Functions, Diseases, Effects, Remedies & Osmoregulator

Structure of The Kidney The mammalian kidney is a reddish-brown, bean-shaped organ located at the posterior end of the abdomen. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left. On cutting a kidney longitudinally, two distinct regions are observed: an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Narrow tubules called urinary tubules (nephrons) pass through these

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Biology

CHROMOSOME | THE BASIS OF HEREDITARY

LOCATION AND STRUCTURE OF CHROMOSOMES Chromatin granules (thread – like structures) found in the nucleus of eucaryotic cells are the precursors or raw materials of chromosomes.   Chromosomes occur in pairs known as homologous chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of two threads called chromatids joined at a point called centromere. Each human somatic cell

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Biology

THEORIES OF EVOLUTION

ORGANIC EVOLUTION Organic evolution is the sum total of adaptive changes from pre–existing or old forms that has taken place over a long time resulting in diversity of forms, structures and functions among organism. The basis of evolution is that all organisms have pre–existing ancestors.   Evidences of evolution Fossil record: A fossil is an

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Biology

ADAPTATION FOR SURVIVAL

COMPETITION Competition is the process by which living organisms in the habitat struggle with one another for limited essential needs in the environment. Such scarce resources in plants include; light, space, nutrient and water while animals complete for food, space or mate. Competition finally results in survival of the fittest and elimination of the unfit.

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