SS 1 Chemistry (1st Term)

Chemistry

OXIDATION NUMBERS

It is often useful to follow chemical reactions by looking at changes in the oxidation numbers of the atoms in each compound during the reaction. Oxidation numbers also play an important role in the systematic nomenclature of chemical compounds. By definition, the oxidation number of an atom is the charge that atom would have if […]

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Chemistry

COMPOUND

In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical element s, in such a way that the atom s of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of

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Chemistry

PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus. Electrons are extremely lightweight and exist in a cloud orbiting the

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Chemistry

MOLECULES AND ATOMICITY

A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atom s that are held together by chemical bonds. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of electron s among atoms. The atoms of

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Chemistry

OXIDATION NUMBERS

It is often useful to follow chemical reactions by looking at changes in the oxidation numbers of the atoms in each compound during the reaction. Oxidation numbers also play an important role in the systematic nomenclature of chemical compounds. By definition, the oxidation number of an atom is the charge that atom would have if

OXIDATION NUMBERS Read More »

Chemistry

COMPOUND

In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical element s, in such a way that the atom s of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of

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Chemistry

RELATIVE ATOMIC MASSES OF ELEMENTS

ISOTOPE Isotopes Definition: Isotopes are atoms with the same number of protons, but differing numbers of neutrons. Isotopes are different forms of a single element. Examples: Carbon 12 and Carbon 14 are both isotopes of carbon, one with 6 neutrons and one with 8 neutrons (both with 6 protons).   ATOMIC WEIGHTS AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE

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Chemistry

PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus. Electrons are extremely lightweight and exist in a cloud orbiting the

PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER Read More »

Chemistry

MOLECULES AND ATOMICITY

A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atom s that are held together by chemical bonds. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of electron s among atoms. The atoms of

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Chemistry

ELEMENTS

Element Definition: A chemical element is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. These are the first 20 elements, listed in order: 1 – H – Hydrogen 2 – He – Helium 3 – Li – Lithium 4 – Be – Beryllium

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Chemistry

PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

In our daily life, we come across many objects, the knowledge about which can be gained by one or more of our senses like sight, touch, hearing, taste and smelling. These objects possess mass, occupy space and may have different shapes, sizes and colours. All these objects constitute matter. Matter may thus, be defined as

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Chemistry

Chemistry as a Subject

Chemistry as a Subject and as a Central Science CHEMISTRY AS A DISCIPLINE Human mind has always been very curious to make investigations and know about various activities/phenomena occurring around him. This curiosity has led him to collect information through experiments and observations. The curious mind has also been responsible for the research activities of

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Chemistry

STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

ORBITALS OF THE ATOM The region in space within which there is maximum possibility of finding an electron in an atom is called an ATOMIC ORBITAL. We have s, p, d, and f orbitals. Shapes of s and p orbitals are as follows:                                                       

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Chemistry

NOMENCLATURE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

NAMING OF BINARY COMPOUNDS Nomenclature: This is the system of naming chemical compounds. The system is called IUPAC (International union of pure and applied chemistry). The naming is determined by the constituent elements in the compound and the oxidation number if necessary. In naming binary compounds (compounds with only two elements), electropositive elements (cations) are

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Chemistry

STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES

STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES The importance of separating a mixture into its constituents cannot be over emphasized since most substances are needed in their pure form. There are many standard separation techniques. Some of these separating techniques are filtration, centrifugation and decantation. Others include sieving, magnetic separation and sublimation, evaporation, crystallization, fractional precipitation, distillation, fractional distillation,

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Chemistry

COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES

COMPOUND A Compound is a substance which contains two or more elements chemically combined together. A compound is formed as a result of chemical change. Examples of compounds are Compound                               Constituent Elements Water                                       Hydrogen, oxygen Sand                                        silicon, oxygen Limestone                                calcium, carbon, oxygen Common salt                            sodium, chlorine Ethanol                                    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen   PROPERTIES OF A COMPOUND

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Chemistry

ELEMENTS, SYMBOLS & VALENCY

ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS An element is a substance which cannot be split into simpler units by ordinary chemical process. There are over one hundred known elements.   SYMBOLS OF ELEMENTS There are three ways in which symbols of elements are derived. From the first letter of the name of the element Element                        Symbols Hydrogen                                

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