Transportation is a means by which raw materials, finished goods and people are moved from one place to another.
IMPORTANCE OF TRASPORTATION IN COMMERCE
- Transportation helps to widen the market
- It encourages international trade
- It prevents wastage of perishable goods
- It helps to provide job opportunities
- It facilitates and quickening effective distribution of goods
- It influences the location of industry
TYPES OF TRANSPORTATION
- Transport by land
- Transport by air
- Transport by water
- Transport by pipeline
- TRASPORT BY LAND – this is the movement of people and goods from one place to another either by road or railway. Transportation by land its divided into two:
- Transport by road – means carrying of goods and people from one place to another on road e.g motor vehicles. Trailer, buses, carts, bicycles etc.
Advantages of Road transport
- It is flexible because it provides door to door services
- It can reach all parts of the country
- It is easy to load and unload
Disadvantages of Road transport
- Loads carried by road transport is limited
- There is high incidence of breakdown and delay
- It creates congestion and traffic on the highway
- Rail Transport – it’s a means of carrying heavy goods and passengers form one place to another by train. The train tracks connect several northern, eastern and western states.
Advantages of Rail Transport
- It is more reliable
- Its accidents are minimal
- It is good for transporting heavy goods
- TRANSPORT BY AIR – is a means of carrying goods and passengers from one place to another with the use of plane, jet and helicopters. It is the fastest means and most comfortable.
Advantages of Air Transport
- It is the fastest
- It facilitates international trade
- It is used to carry fragile and perishable goods
- It can travel long distance
Disadvantages of Air Transport
- It is very expensive
- Its safety is questionable i.e. high rate of accident
- It is not suitable for carrying heavy goods.
- It is not flexible
- TRANSPORT BY WATER – is a means of carrying goods and people from one place to another on water with the use of speed boats, canoes and ships.
Advantages of Water Transport
- It is the cheapest
- It facilitates internal trade
- It is good for conveying heavy loads e.g. containers
Disadvantages of Water transport
- It is very slow and time wasting
- It moves on schedule
- It is not flexible, it can only move on water
- TRANSPORT BY PIPELINE – is a means of transporting liquids and gas. Pipelines are built underground and they are used to transport kerosene, petrol, water etc from one place to another.
Advantages of Pipeline Transport
- The cost of maintenance is low
- chances of accident are limited
- it reduces congestion of vehicles on the road
Disadvantages of Pipeline Transport
- it requires a lot of money for construction
- it may lead to illegal bunkering
- it may result to spillage which causes environmental pollution
Exercise: (i) What are the products carried by pipeline? (ii) List the modes of transportation