BIOLOGY PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
Table of Contents
Comparison of Vertebrate Limbs
Limbs of various vertebrates are provided: e.g. fish- Tilapia, amphibian-frog reptiles, lizard; bird – domestic fowl (chicken), mammal- rabbit. Their anatomy can be studied.
The following can be noted:
- That all limbs have five sets of bones;
- A single upper bone- the femur in hind limb and the humerus in fore limb
- Two lower limb bones -i.e. the tibia & fibula in the hind limb & ulna & radius in the forelimb.
- Small bones – i.e. ankle (tarsals) and wrist bones (carpals)
- The bones making the foot and hand are metatarsals and metacarpals respectively.
- The bones of toes and of fingers i.e. phalanges
- Observe the various modifications of these bones in the various animals.
- Limbs of different mammals e.g. rabbit, cow, donkey reveal that the anatomy is adapted to mode or type of movement. e.g. the horse has a single digit.
- An outdoor activity to observe various sty les of movement in different mammals can be studied.
- It is noted that some move on tips of toes (donkey) others on the whole leg (rabbit).
Comparison of Wings of bird and insect
- Wings of birds and insects (grasshopper, butterfly or moth) are obtained.
- A hand lens or a dissecting microscope is used to observe the specimens.
- The differences in their anatomy are noted.
- Insect wings are membranous while those of birds are made up of feathers that interlock.