This is a flat bottom surface in or on any structure. It is a rigid building assembly that divides space horizontally into stories. It forms the bottom of a room. It may consist of joist-supported wood planks or panels, decking or panels supported by wood or steel beams, a slab of stone or concrete on the ground, or a reinforced-concrete slab carried by concrete beams and columns.


The floor assembly must support its own dead load plus the live load of occupants, activities, and furnishings. The horizontal supports beneath its top surface—and the vertical supports into which they frame—must be sufficiently large and spaced closely enough to prevent sagging of the assembly


Types of floors

  1. Solid Floors: These are concrete which may simply be finished with smooth surface or laid with tiles (plastic and linoleum floor tiles), which are not normally laid down in specifications.
  2. Suspended Floors: It consists of wood, which is nailed over solid lengths of timber, ends of which are supported by the main walls of building.



  1. Describe a floor.
  2. State the different types of floor.


We have the following types of solid floors:

  • One-way reinforcing system: The reinforcing elements are laid to run in one direction
  • Two-way reinforcing system: The reinforcing elements are laid to run in two directions.
  • Concrete slab floor with light gauge decking: These are light gauge steel deck, covered with a concrete slab.
  • One-way ribbed slab floor: This type of floor consists of series of closely spaced reinforced I-beams framing into framing into girders.
  • Pre-cast concrete floor system: It involves the production of standard pre-cast members, which use ordinary reinforcing bars


General floor finishes

Surface of floors in dwelling houses may be terrazzo finished, painted, waxed, tiled, or carpeted. Other types of finish are in the form designs such as parquetry flooring e.t.c.

  1. Parquet floor
  2. Terrazzo floor
  3. Tile floor or linoleum (rubber)



  1. State five(5) types of flooring system.
  2. State three(3) general floor-finishes.



Roof is a building structure that provides covering for the entire building and protects any internal decoration or fittings from the weather and thereby rendering the house habitable.

Types of roofing

There are different kinds of roof today but we are going to emphasize only the most common ones found around and these include: Gambrel, Shed, Hip, Butterfly, Gable, or Pitched, Flat (made of galvanized metal sheet or concrete), Monitor, Half monitor, Arched, Combination, Lean-to, Collar and Mansard roof respectively.



  1. Hip roof: The hip roof has four slanting surfaces from a peak known as ridge. It has a shortening effect on the length of the building roof.
  2. Pitched roof: (Gabble): It has two surfaces sloping away from the ridge. A typical characteristic of pitched roof is a cavity wall at gable end, and vent between the fascia and suffit, which prevents the rafter timbers from disintegration.
  3. Shed roof: This is the simplest form of roof construction, having only one slope usually to the rear of building.
  4. Butterfly roof: This is a double shed roof which slopes inwards with
  5. Half roof
  6. Half Monitor roof
  7. Monitor roof
  8. Combination roof
  9. Arched roof
  10. Mansard roof



  1. State five(5) types of roofs.
  2. Sketch five(5) types of roofs.


Weekend Assignment

  1. ____ is a building structure that provides covering for the entire building (a) door (b) windows (c) roof (d) floor
  2. Which of the following is geometrically inclined (a) Bull’s eye window (b) French window (c) panel window (d) combination window
  3. The following are functions of windows except (a) It is used for admitting light and air.(b) It serves as barriers to dangers and attacks. (c) It is used to allow ventilation. (d) It is used for collection of rain
  4. The following are functions of roof except (a) Shed (b) Hip (c) Butterfly (d) panel
  5. The type of roof that is suitable for factory is (a) hip roof (b) butterfly (c) monitor (d) panel roof



  1. Mention nine(9) types of roof.
  2. State the functions of windows.


See also






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