DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by narrowing of air passages.
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Due to pollen, dust, fur, animal hair, spores among others. If these substances are inhaled, they trigger release of chemical substances and they may cause swelling of the bronchioles and bring about an asthma attack. Heredity Asthma is usually associated with certain disorders which tend to occur in more than one member of a given family, thus suggesting’ a hereditary tendency.
Emotional or mental stress
Strains the body immune system hence predisposes to asthma attack.
Asthma is characterized by wheezing and difficulty in breathing accompanied by feeling of tightness in the chest as a result of contraction of the smooth muscles lining the air passages.
Treatment and Control
There is no definite cure for asthma. The best way where applicable is to avoid whatever triggers an attack (allergen). Treatment is usually by administering drugs called bronchodilators. The drugs are inhaled, taken orally or injected intravenously depending on severity of attack to relief bronchial spasms.
This is an inflammation of bronchial tubes.
This is due to an infection of bronchi and bronchioles by bacteria and viruses.
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Cough that produces mucus.
Antibiotics are administered.
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease that results in destruction of the lung tissue.
- Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
- Human tuberculosis is spread through droplet infection i.e., in saliva and sputum.
- Tuberculosis can also spread from cattle to man through contaminated milk.
- From a mother suffering from the disease to a baby through breast feeding.
- The disease is currently on the rise due to the lowered immunity in persons with HIV and AIDS (Human Immune Deficiency Syndrome).
- Tuberculosis is common in areas where there is dirt, overcrowding and malnourishment.
It is characterized by a dry cough, lack of breath and body wasting.
- Proper nutrition with a diet rich in proteins and vitamins to boost immunity.
- Isolation of sick persons reduces its spread.
- Utensils used by the sick should be sterilized by boiling.
- Avoidance of crowded places and living in well ventilated houses.
- Immunization with B.C.G. vaccine gives protection against tuberculosis.
- This is done a few days after birth with subsequent boosters.
- Treatment is by use of antibiotics.
Pneumonia is infection resulting in inflammation of lungs. The alveoli get filled with fluid and bacterial cells decreasing surface are for gaseous exchange. Pneumonia is caused by bacteria and virus.
More infections occur during cold weather. The old and the weak in health are most vulnerable.
- Pain in the chest accompanied by a fever, high body temperatures (39-40°C) and general body weakness.
- Maintain good health through proper feeding.
- Avoid extreme cold.
- If the condition is caused by pneumococcus bacteria, antibiotics are administered.
- If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be given using an oxygen mask.
Whooping cough is an acute infection of respiratory tract. The disease is more common in children under the age of five but adults may also be affected.
- It is caused by Bordetella pertusis bacteria and is usually spread by droplets produced when a sick person coughs.
- Severe coughing and frequent vomiting.
- Thick sticky mucus is produced.
- Severe broncho-pneumonia.
- Convulsions in some cases.
- Children may be immunized against whooping cough by means of a vaccine which is usually combined with those against diphtheria and tetanus.
- It is called “Triple Vaccine” or Diptheria, Pertusis and Tetanus (DPT).
- Antibiotics are administered.
- To reduce the coughing, the patient should be given drugs.
Practical Activities Observation of permanent slides of terrestrial and aquatic leaves and stems Leaves
- Observation of T.S. of bean and water lily are made under low and ‘medium power objectives. Stomata and air space are seen.
- Labelled drawings of each are made.
- The number and distribution of stomata on the lower and upper leaf surface is noted.
- Also the size of air spaces and their distribution. Stem
- Prepared slides (TS) of stems of terrestrial and aquatic plants such as croton and reeds are obtained.
- Observations under low power and medium power of a microscope are made.
- Labelled drawings are made and the following are noted:
- Lenticels on terrestrial stems.
- Large air spaces (aerenchyma) in aquatic stems.