JSS 1 Cultural And Creative Art (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term) Creative and Common Art (CCA)


Elements of drama are the features of drama that are vital or fundamental to the understanding of any dramatic piece of writing.

The following are elements of drama.

  1. Plot:Plot is the storyline from the beginning to the end. A written piece of drama is incomplete without the plot. It is the plot that gives the reader an insight into what the entire written play is all about.
  2. Protagonist:This is the central character who is either the man (hero) or woman (heroine) that performs a prominent role in a drama. The protagonist is the lead actor (male) and the lead actress (female).
  3. Antagonist:This is the character that opposes the protagonist either a rightly or wrongly.
  4. Dramatis Personae: Dramatis personae refer to a list of the characters or actors in a drama. In another viewpoint, dramatis personae refer to the characters or actors in a drama.
  5. Script: Script is the material upon which the words or speeches and actions of the players are written. The script writer and playwright do the writing of all that is contained in the script, upon which the players read and memorize their lines in written or scripted drama.
  6. Characterization: Characterization refers to the way the dramatist uses the characters such that they are as real and believable as possible. Characterization is achieved through the use of dialogue and conversation.
  7. Theme: Any written piece of drama has a theme that reflects the main idea of the playwright. Theme is said to be central thought or idea of the playwright.
  8. Sound: Sound is a fundamental element that is conveyed through vocal expression from the players and musical sounds played at the background to make the play understandable and lively.
  9. Playwright:Playwright is the person either man or woman who writes a piece of drama. A playwright is also known as dramatist.
  10. Tragic Flaw:Tragic flaw is the costly mistake made by the protagonist in a play or drama that leads to his or her downfall.A kind of inbuilt or inherited weakness like pride which leads to the tragic end of the protagonist .King Odewale’s weakness is his hot temper in the gods are not to Blame by Ola Rotimi.
  11. Audience:This refers to the crowd of people seated around the auditorium in a theatre or cinema house who watch a drama presentation.
  12. Conflict:This refers to the struggle for relevance or influence by the Protagonist and Antagonist. Conflict is necessary in a drama piece to enable it develop and move forward.
  13. Denouement: This refers to the resolution or unknotting of events. Denouement occurs after a written play soon reaches the climax. In denouement, the conflict in the play is finally resolved .
  14. Stage: Stage is the elevated platform in a theatre that is detached from the auditorium where the cast perform the play or drama to entertain the audience.
  15. Cast: Cast refers to the actors and actresses in a play or drama. They are the key players that are important in the presentation of a written piece of drama.



  1. What is script?
  2. State the difference between scripted and non scripted drama.
  3. What are the duties of a drama director?
  4. Mention three sub groups of performing art.
  5. What is stage fright?
  6. Mention three ways of one having a sense of belonging.
  7. State three importance of teamwork.
  8. What are elements of drama?
  9. Explain Protagonist and Antagonist respectively.



  1. Functions of drama include the following except…………………………..(a) it educates. (b) it entertains (c) it informs (d) it kills idea
  2. The use of drama in treating certain ailments is classified under ………………….…… (a) educative function (b) Tolerance  (b)   (c) informative function (d) therapeutic function
  1. These are elements of drama except……(a) screen (b) script  (c) plot  (d) diction
  2. Actor can be described as the ……………… (a) male personality who performs a play on stage (b) male boxer on a stage (c) female actress   (d) farmer in a play
  3. The way a playwright depicts characters in a book or play to make them appear too real is …………..(a) plot (b) characterization (c) diction (d) denouement



  1. State two functions of drama.
  2. Who is a playwright?


See also




Human Rights


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