The Origins of the internet dates back to1960s when the United State funded research projects of its military agencies to build robust, fault-tolerant and distributed computer network.

The internet is a global system of interconnected computer network that use the standard internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies. The internet carries a vast array of information resources and services, most notably the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (www) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. One of the simplest definitions of internet is that, it is a collection of computer linked together.


Gopher: enable you to access other computer on the internet.

Browse: This is a term used to refer to the process of accessing and viewing web pages on the internet.

Browser: A browser is also called a web browser. It is a software application that is used to access and view web pages in the internet. Most browsers can be used to send and receive email, connect to web based email services and read newsgroup.

Some popular browsers are: Internet Explorer, Opera, Safari, Chrome, Mozilla etc.

Chart rooms: These are virtual communication platforms where many people keep in contact with family, friends and classmates. Some websites that have chart rooms are Yahoo, AOL, MSN, Google etc. Some chart rooms allows the use of webcam to view each other and communication of emotions using chart emoticons.

Cyber Space: This term is used to describe internet networks and the www.

Download: This is a process of retrieving information from the internet onto a personal computer. A user can download files, music, software or games onto a personal computer.

Electronic mail (E-mail): A mail that is sent and received through the internet is called an e-mail. For a user to send and receive message on the internet he/she must have an email address. Example of an e-mail address is .

Home Page: This is the start page of any website. It refers to the initial or main page of a website that loads when a user specifies the URL of a website in a web browser.

HTML: HTML a short for Hyper Text Mark-up Language is a computer language with some sets of markup symbols and codes that are used for building websites.

Protocol: It is the standard or set of rules by which computers communicate over the network.

Web Page: A web page is a html document or resources of information in a website that is presented as a page.

HTTP: HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. It is the protocol for transferring web pages in the web.

ISP: Internet Service Protocol is a company that provides individuals and companies access to the internet. Examples of ISPs in Nigeria are: IPNX, Linkserve Limited, Cobranet Limited, Swift Networks Limited, etc.

Upload: This term refers to the process of transmitting a file from a local computer onto the internet. It is the opposite of download.

Website: The website is a collection of web pages that are related to an entity, activity or event. The beginning page of a website is called the Home page.

Some examples of websites are:

Information Technology Organizations


HIV/AIDS control Organizations


Examination Bodies


Drug Control Agencies


Individual Website



The common internet browsers are:

  1. Internet Explorer
  2. Firefox
  3. Opera
  4. Netscape Navigator
  5. Google Chrome
  6. Maxthon Browser
  7. Rocketmelt Browser
  8. SeaMonkey Browser
  9. Deepnet Explorer
  10. Safari Browser

Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer is a graphical web browser developed by Microsoft.


Mozilla Firefox is a free and open source web browser managed by Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is one of the widely used browsers.


The opera browser is a web browser developed by opera software. It is smallest and fastest browser in the world.

Netscape Navigator

Netscape Navigator browser is a product of the Netscape Communication Corporation.


The common features of the main browser are:

Title Bar

The title bar is at the very top of the browser windows. In both Firefox and Internet Explorer web browser is normally seen on the blue bar at the top. The title of the web page is displayed on the title bar.

Menu Bar

The menu bar contains menus such as File, Edit, View, History, etc. it is the bar underneath the title bar.

Tool Bar

The toolbar and its icon are displayed at the top of the browser windows underneath the menu bar. This is where the Back button, the Home button, the Refresh button, etc are found.

Address Bar

The address bar is the box at the top of the browser windows that displays the entire URL, or web site



The internet plays a major role in the society in the following application areas:

  1. Education/E-learning: With the internet, people can get educational materials and read them in preparation for examinations, or use them for school assignments. The internet also enhances electronic learning whereby courses or subjects are taught online using audio and, or visual material.
  2. E- Registration: The internet provides users with facilities for online registration of examinations like WAEC, NECO and JAMB.
  3. Entertainment: The internet kills boredom and enhances leisure by providing its users with latest entertainment in the form of movies, games, news, and many more.
  4. Communication: This is one of the key benefits of the internet. The internet provide many means by which users can communicates with friends, family, colleagues, and more through emails and other social sites like facebook, yahoo massager, 2go, twitter etc.
  5. E-Banking: The internet can be used as a tool to carry out transactions with banks irrespective of user’s location.
  6. E-Commerce: Internet is also a tool for E-commerce. It allows users to buy and sell their goods and services online regardless of their location.


Internet security is the practice of protection and preserving private resources and information on the internet. It is a protection to your personal computer from any harmful and malicious spyware.

Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the internet. Different methods have been used to protect the transfer of data including, encryption, use of antivirus software, using firewall, use of passwords that are not disclose to unauthorized users etc.


Internet abuse is the inappropriate usage of the internet. Below are some of the common internet abuse:

1.Computer crime: A computer crime is any unlawful activity that is done using a computer.
This definition can extend to traditional crimes that are committed with the machine, such as
counterfeiting money, but it also includes more tech –savvy crimes, such as phishing or
logic bombs use of computers in criminal activity

2.Cyber-bulling: Is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person.

3.Spam: Unsolicited e-mail often of a commercial nature.

4. Malware: These are software designed to harm a user’s computer, including computer viruses. Malware is short for malicious software which includes computer viruses, worms, Trojans, adware, spyware, crimeware, scar ware, rootkits, etc.

Communication Channel /Media

There are kinds of channels/ media used to transmit data. Transmission media are physical paths for carrying information like, a pair of wire. These are telephone lines, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, microwaves and satellite.

Intranet: This is a private network within an organization that resembles the internet.

Extranet: It is a private network that connect more than one organization. It is actually intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders.


  1. Define Networking.
  2. State four benefits of Networking.
  3. Differentiate between intranet and extranet.

See also






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