# JSS 1 Mathematics (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term)

## ESTIMATION

ESTIMATION Estimation may be explained as a rough or sensible guess fo a value or calculation. Although, the estimated value is not correct, it gives us an idea of what the correct answer should be. The common units of length are kilometer (km), meters (m), centimeters (cm), millimeters (mm).Mass = (Tonne, kilogram (kg) gramme (g). […]

## L.C.M AND H.C.F

L.C.M AND H.C.F (LOWEST AND HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR) See also OPERATIONS ON FRACTIONS FRACTIONS FRACTIONS WHOLE NUMBERS ALGERAIC FRACTIONS

## OPERATIONS ON FRACTIONS

OPERATIONS ON FRACTIONS   See also FRACTIONS FRACTIONS WHOLE NUMBERS ALGERAIC FRACTIONS ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

## FRACTIONS | CONVERTION FROM PERCENTAGE TO DECIMAL AND DECIMAL TO FRACTION

FRACTIONS (CONVERTION FROM PERCENTAGE TO DECIMAL AND DECIMAL TO FRACTION)   See also FRACTIONS WHOLE NUMBERS ALGERAIC FRACTIONS ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF DIRECTED NUMBERS

## FRACTIONS (TYPES OF FRACTIONS)

FRACTIONS (TYPES OF FRACTIONS) See also WHOLE NUMBERS ALGERAIC FRACTIONS ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF DIRECTED NUMBERS APPROXIMATION AND ESTIMATION

## WHOLE NUMBERS

WHOLE NUMBERS See also ALGERAIC FRACTIONS ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF DIRECTED NUMBERS APPROXIMATION AND ESTIMATION ARITHMETIC

## INDICES

INDICES See also STANDARD FORM AND APPROXIMATION MODULAR ARITHMETIC RULES OF BASE NUMBER NUMBER BASES BASIC OPERATIONS OF INTEGER

## PERIMETER OF REGULAR PLANE SHAPES

The perimeter of a plane shape is the length of its outside boundary or the distance around its edges. Irregular shape An irregular shape does not have a definite shape. To determine the perimeter of such shape, string or thread can be used to measure it. Place the string around the edge, then straighten it

## Geometry – Plane Shapes

Plane shapes are two-dimensional shapes bounded by lines known as sides. Any shape drawn on a plane is called a two-dimensional shape (or 2-D shapes for short). When we say a figure is two- dimensional, we mean it can be measured along x and y axes i.e. it has length and width or breadth. Â

## SIMPLE EQUATIONS

SIMPLE EQUATIONS An algebraic equation is two algebraic expressions separated by an equal sign. The left hand side is equal to the right hand side (LHS = RHS) e.gÂ Â Â Â  7 + 3 = 10,Â  20 -6 = 14,Â  4 x 5 = 20, 35/7 = 5 Translation of algebraic equations into words: Any letter of

## SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC EQUATION

SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS ON SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC EQUATION Solving equation by balance method Equation with bracket Equation with fraction. Solving Equation by Balance Method To solve an equation means to find the values of the unknown in the equation that makes it true.   For example: 2x Â– 9 = 15. 2x Â– 9 is on

## ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION Definition with examples Expansion of algebraic expression Factorization of simple algebraic expressions   Definition with examplesÂ Â  In algebra, letters stand for numbers. The numbers can be whole or fractional, positive or negative. Example Simplify the following -5 x 2y -3a x -6b -14a/7 -1/3 of 36×2 Â  Solution 1) Â Â Â -5 x 2y =

## DIRECTED NUMBERS

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF DIRECTED NUMBERS Directed numbers are the positive and negative numbers in any given number line e.g   -4Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  -3 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  -2 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  -1 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  0Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  1 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  2Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  3 Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  Â 4 The (+) and (-) signs show the direction from the origin (o). To add a positive number move to the

## APPROXIMATION OF NUMBERS ROUNDING

APPROXIMATION OF NUMBERS ROUNDING OFF TO DECIMAL PLACES Digits 1,2,34 are rounded down to Zero, while digits 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are rounded up to 1 e.g. 126=130 to 2 digits A significant figure begins from the first non-zero digit at the left of a number. Digit should be written with their correct

## SIMPLE INTEREST

Interest is the money paid for saving a particular amount of money. Simple interest can be calculated using the formula Simple interest I = PRT/100   Where P= principal, R=rate & T= time Also total amount =principal +interest Â  Example 1 Find the simple interest on N60, 000 for 5 years at 9% per annum

## FRACTIONS, RATIOS, DECIMALS AND PERCENTAGES

Fractions and Percentages A fraction can be converted to decimal by dividing the numerator by its denominator. It can be changed to percentage by simply multiplying by 100. Example 5.1 Change 3/8 into a decimal and percentage Convert 0.145 to percentage Solution 1)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  3/8 = 0.375 in decimal 3/8 x 100% = 37.5% 2)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  0.145×100=14.5%

## H.C.F & L.C.M AND PERFECT SQUARES

Highest Common Factors Highest common factor is the greatest number which will divide exactly into two or more numbers. For example 4 is the highest common factor (HCF) of 20 & 24. i.e. 20 = 1, 2, (4), 5, 10, 20 24= 1, 2, 3, (4), 6, 8, 12, 24   Example 1: Find the

## WHOLE NUMBERS AND DECIMAL NUMBERS

Difference between Whole Numbers and Decimal Numbers Whole number is a number without fraction. For example 1, 2, 3, 41000, 38888 are examples of whole numbers.71/2 is not a whole number. A decimal number is a fractional number less than 1. It is smaller to a whole number. Examples – 0.1,0.01,0.001etc Â  Whole Numbers in

## BASIC OPERATION OF INTEGERS

Definition of Integer An integer is any positive or negative whole number Â  Example: Simplify the following (+8) + (+3)Â Â Â Â Â  (ii) (+9) –Â  (+4) Solution (+8) + (+3) = +11Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  (ii) (+9) – (+4) = 9-4 = +5 or 5 Â  Evaluation Simplify the following (+12) Â–(+7)Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â  (ii) 7-(-3)-(-2) Â  Indices The plural of index