METHODS OF COOKING – Dry Heat, Baking, Roasting & Grilling


Baking is cooking foods by dry heat in an enclosed pre-heated space by direct radiation. Baking usually takes place in the oven. Dry heat is applied and the food is surrounded by a current of hot air. The hot air then cooks the foods. It is the method suitable for cakes, pastries, bread, biscuits, etc.

Rules for Baking

  1. Always pre-heat oven before putting the food.
  2. Use oven gloves to bring out food from the oven.
  3. Oven trays should not be overloaded.
  4. Avoid frequent opening of the oven door.
  5. Do not bang the oven door, but close it gently.
  6. Do not bake foods that give out moisture with crispy and dry foods.


  1. What is baking?
  2. State three rules for baking.


  1. Baked foods are attractive and appetizing.
  2. There is no loss of soluble nutrients.
  3. It is economical on fuel as more than one dish can be baked at a time.


  1. It requires constant attention, otherwise foods may be burnt.
  2. It wastes fuel when baking only one dish.
  3. It requires a careful temperature control and skills.


  1. State three advantages of baking.
  2. State two advantages of baking.


This is cooking on glowing heat. Roasting can be carried out in the following ways:

  1. a) In hot ash or sand e.g. groundnuts, yam, etc.
  2. b) On a grid over an open fire or heated charcoal e.g. plantain, yam, maize, meat, etc.
  3. c) Roasting a whole carcass on a skewer by direct heat (e.g. radiant heat) with melted fat or vegetable oil used for basting. This is known as spit roasting.
  4. d) Oven can also be used for roasting e.g. chicken, fish, etc.


  1. Roasted foods are attractive.
  2. They are usually taste and appetizing.
  3. Roasting retains the full flavour and nutrients of foods.
  4. Foods cooked by roasting are less fatty than frying.


  1. Roasting requires constant attention.
  2. It takes longer time.
  3. It consumes fuel and energy for heating.


  1. State three ways in which roasting can be carried out.
  2. Mention two advantages of roasting.


This is a fast method of cooking by radiant heat directly above or below the food. It is also known as broiling. The heat source is a flat frame of metal gird or bars heated by a gas flame, an electric, charcoal or wood in barbecues. An equipment known as salamander grill can also be used for grilling. The food is brushed with fat or oil and grilled for a few minutes on both sides to seal in the nutrients. The major different between roasting and grilling is that roasting is usually used to cook large cuts of foods while grilling is usually used for tender and small cuts.

Foods that can be cooked by grilling include:

  • Small cuts of meat, steak, lamb
  • Sausages, kidneys, liver, bacon
  • Cutlets of large fish and small size of fish, etc.


  1. Grilled foods are tasty and easily digested.
  2. Grilling is a quick method of cooking.
  3. There is no loss of soluble nutrients.
  4. Grilled foods are less fatty than fried foods.


  1. It is only suitable for tender cuts of food.
  2. It requires constant attention.
  3. It also requires special skill to do it well.


  1. What is cooking?
  2. State three reasons for cooking foods before eaten.
  3. What do you understand by conservative methods of cooking?
  4. State three reasons why people like to eat outside their homes.
  5. List and discuss different flour products.


  1. ____ is cooking in dry heat with the aid of fat or oil in an oven or on a spit. A. Baking
  2. Roasting C. Grilling D. Broiling
  3. Cooking of foods in an enclosed space is called ____. A. boiling B.  frying C. baking
  4. cutting
  5. Grilling as a method of cooking is suitable for the following types of foods except ____.
  6. beans B. sausages C. fish D. steak
  7. Which method of cooking is suitable for cakes? A. Steaming B. Roasting C. Poaching
  8. Baking
  9. Oven is a kitchen equipment which can be used for both ____ and ____. A. baking, stewing B. roasting, frying C.  grilling, roasting           baking, roasting


  1. State three advantages of roasting.
  2. State two advantages of baking.

See also

    METHODS OF COOKING: Stewing, Frying, advantages & disadvantages

    METHODS OF COOKING: Boiling, Poaching & Steaming


    FLOUR COOKERY: Types of flour, Raising Agents & Flour mixtures

    FOOD COMMODITIES: Cereal, Pulses, Herbs and Spices

    Author: Mrs Ngozi Nnanna

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