DEFINITION OF MINING
Mining: is the process of getting coal, gold and other minerals from under the ground by making a deep hole or holes where these minerals are dug. That is, it is an extraction of minerals from under the ground through the process of digging deep holes into the grounds.
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Mining is one of the major occupations in Nigeria which could be traceable to our forefathers. The arrival of the Europeans colonial masters in the early 19th century led to the decline of great participation in the industry.
The decline in local participation was due to factors such as the monopoly of exploitation by Europeans, inadequate technology on the part of the Nigerian miners, the superiority and competition of European final products with those of the local mining industries.
COMPONENT OF NIGERIA MINING INDUSTRY
The components of the Nigerian mining industry consist of different mining industries set up for the extraction of minerals in different locations within the country. Most of the mineral fuels, natural gas, petroleum and coal are located in the Southern states namely: Rivers, Bayelsa, Cross-River, Akwa-Ibom, Delta, Anambra, Ebonyi, while the major deposits of coal are located in Enugu and Imo states. On the other hand, gold, columbite and tin are located mainly near Jos in Plateau state. There are deposits of tin, gold and limestone in Osun state. Other minerals of less importance include lignite clay, marble, thorium, mica and uranium which are either completely untouched or are exploited on a small scale by local enterprises. The following mining industries are set up in Nigeria:
Petroleum Industry- It is for the extraction of crude oil in Port-Harcourt, and Niger Delta area.
Coal Mining Industry- It is for the mining of coal in Enugu and Benue States.
Iron And Steel Industry- It extracts iron ore and feed them into Iron and Steel Complex at Ajaokuta in Kogi State and Aladja in Delta State
Tin And Columbite Mining Industry- It mines tin and columbite in Jos in Plateau State.
Limestone Cement Industry- It turns limestone into cement in Ewekoro and Ishagamu in Ogun State, Calabar in Cross-River State and Nkalagun in Anambra State.
Marble Mining Industry- Its main source of supply is at Jakuta in the Lokoja area of Kogi state. It is cut and polished for the building industry and monuments.
Lead – zinc Mining Industry- It mines lead and zinc in Abakaliki in Ebonyi state.
TYPES OF MINERAL AND THEIR USES
- Petroleum (crude oil)- is a liquid mineral called black gold from which petrol, kerosene, diseal and other petrol chemical products are derived. It is originated from dead plants and animals matters deposited and transformed over a period of time by heat and pressure into sedimentary matters.
- Coal- is a major source of power from a sedimentary rock. It is suitable for the production of tar and synthetic fertilizer, for ordinary steam raising purposes including the generation of electricity and also for the manufacture of chemicals and liquid fuels as a result of its richness in hydrocarbons, waxes and resins.
- Iron – Ore –is a basement complex rock mineral fed into iron and steel complex to make iron and steel.
- Tin and Columbite- are basement complex rock minerals of silvery malleable element that resist corrosion used for manufacturing heat resistant steel used in Jet engine.
- Limestone- is a sedimentary mineral rock used for manufacturing of cement. It provides the necessary raw materials for the country’s cement factories.
- Lead and Zinc- are sedimentary mineral rocks used in industry locally.
- Marble- is a hard crystalline metamorphic rock that takes a high polish used for sculpture, building materials and for monuments.
- Gold- is a soft yellow malleable ductile metallic element which occurs mainly as nuggets in rocks and alluvial deposits. It is very valuable among the precious stones.
- Natural Gas- is fossil fuel in the gaseous state produced during petroleum refinery used for cooking, heating up homes and industrial purposes.
IMPORTANCE OF MINERALS TO NIGERIA
- Mining of minerals helps to provide employment to the people
- It serves as a source of revenue generation to the government
- It provides raw-materials for our local industries.
- It enhances economic growth and development
- It helps to equip Nigerian people with the acquisition of technical skills
- It makes laudable contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
- It serves as source of foreign exchange earner to the government
- It helps to enhance the standard of living of the people.
- It helps to supply fuel and energy
PROBLEMS FACING MINING IN NIGERIA
- Inadequate capital for exploration
- Problem of poor transportation network
- Inadequate technical personnel needed for mineral exploration
- Problem of fluctuation in the world prices of minerals.
- Problem of environmental pollution through oil spillage and degradation.
- Define the term limited liability company
- Explain any four problems of statutory corporation
- Outline any five internal economies of scale enjoy by a large firm.
- Highlight four features of a table
- Define a joint stock company.
- Define mining of mineral resources
- Briefly explain component of mining industry in Nigeria
- List types of mineral and their locations
- State five different minerals and their usages
- Outline five importance of minerals to Nigeria
- Highlight five problems facing mining in Nigeria
- The basement complex rock minerals used for manufacturing of heat resistant steel are ____ (a) limestone (b) lead and zinc (c) tin and columbite (d) natural gas
- The process of digging deep holes into the ground to extract deposited mineral resources from the earth crust is known as ____ (a) farming (b) manufacturing (c) mining (d) lumbering
- A liquid mineral resources called black gold is ____ (a) petroleum (b) coal (c) gold (d) limestone
- The extraction of iron ore serves as raw material being used to feed Iron and Steel Complex at ____ (a) Ewekoro and Ishagamu (b) Ajaokuta and Aladja (c) Jos and Enugu (d) Ebonyi and Nkalagu
- All the following are environmental problems caused by mining except ____ (a) air pollution (b) oil spillage (c) land pollution (d) fumigation
- Mention at least five states in Nigeria and types of mineral found in them.
- State five contributions of mining to economic development in Nigeria.