Nationalism may be defined as the efforts made by Africans to oppose or reject colonial rule. It is the love and pride in a country shown by its people or the desire by a racial group to form an independent country. It could also be seen as a sense of oneness that emerges from social groups trying to control their destiny, environment and to defend their group against competing groups.
- What is nationalism?
- Mention five names of nationalists in Nigeria.
FEATURES OF NATIONALISM BEFORE SECOND WORLD WAR
- Western Education: Western education provided a common language with which West Africa used to fight colonialism.
- World Depression: The First World War caused World economic depression which brought about untold hardships and agitation for self government.
- Economic Exploitation: Monopoly of trade in West Africa by European firms or companies and its exploitation gave rise to the growth of nationalism.
- Lack of Educational Facilities: The missionaries did not have enough money to finance the system. The essence of education was to enable the blacks to read and write not to produce man power.
- High Cost of Living: The rise in prices of goods and services which resulted in high cost of living and fall in standard of living increased the agitation for self government.
- Emergence of Political Parties: The demand for increased participation in the political process by parties helped the growth of nationalism.
- Religion: The activities of Christian missionaries that disregarded Africa tradition and culture played a significant role in the rise of nationalism in West Africa.
- Heavy Taxes: The heavy taxes imposed on Africans and the control of the money realized from such taxation helped to spark off nationalist activities in West Africa.
- Racial Discrimination: The racial discrimination in the civil service practiced by the rulers gave rise to the growth of nationalism in West Africa.
- How did education contribute to nationalist movement?
- What is racial discrimination?
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTIONS
- Explain the features of Nationalism before Second World War.
- Identify six nationalists that fought for independence in Nigeria.
- Discuss how World depression led to nationalist activities in West Africa.
- How did high cost of living contributed to the rise of nationalism?
- Discuss the strategies employed by nationalist movements in campaigning against colonialism in West Africa.
- The term Nationalism refers to —- (a) Imperialism (b)the struggle for independence (c) legitimacy (d) colonialism
- The policy of indignant was practiced in the colonies controlled by — (a) Britain (b) Portugal (c) France (d) Belgium
- The West Africa student union was formed in 1925 in — (a) Dakar (b) London (c) New York (d) Lagos
- The policy of Association was adopted by the — (a) French to replace their policy of Assimilation (b) Herbert Macaulay (c) British to replace their policy of Indirect Rule (c) French for their home government (d) Britain
- The following were the factors that led to the rise of nationalism except —- (a) heavy taxes (b) provision of social amenities (c) religion (d) economic exploitation
- How did the return of educated elites contributed to nationalist movement?
- Mention the names of the nationalists that fought for independence in West Africa.