VEGETATION OF NIGERIA
The vegetation of Nigeria can be grouped into three major zones and these are:
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- Forest zone/vegetation: This zone contains mainly trees and it is sub-divided into
(a) Mangrove swamp forest: Salt and fresh water swamp.
(b) Rain forest
- Savanna zone/vegetation: This zone is made up of mainly grasses and it is further sub-divided into three which are
(a) Guinea savanna
(b) Sudan savanna
(c) Sahel savanna
- Montane vegetation: This is mainly found in highland areas such as Jos and Adamawa.
SOILS IN NIGERIA
Soil is defined as the thin surface of the uppermost layer of the earth’s crust on whch plants grow.
Soils in Nigeria can be grouped into four major zones which are:
- Zone of laterite soil
- Zone of forest soil
- Zone of sandy soil
- Zone of alluvial soil
ZONE OF LATERITE SOIL
These are found in the interior zone of Nigeria in places such as Jos, Markurdi, M inna, Enugu, Abuja etc. The soils are associated with guinea savanna and it is heavily leached due to rainfall. The soils are usually reddish in colour due to the presence of iron.
ZONE OF SANDY SOIL
These soils are found in the extreme northern part of Nigeria like Sokoto, Katsina, Kano, Damaturu, Maiduguru etc. T he soils are associated with sudan and sahel savanna. These soils are formed due to dryness and depositing of sand by wind.
ZONE OF FOREST SOIL
This is found in the southern belt and south-western part of Nigeria in places like Ibadan, Akure, Benin City, Ogun, Anambra, Imo etc. The soil is associated with forest vegetation and it is rich in humus due to fallen and decayed leaves
ZONE OF ALLUVIAL SOILS
This is found around Ilorin, Lokoja, Niger-Delta areas of Warri, Port-Harcourt and Calaber. The soil is associated with fine alluvial soil deposits at the lower course of a river.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- Define soil.
- Mention three types of soil.
- Describe the zone of laterite soil.
- Describe the solar system.
- State the characteristics of Jupiter
- What is vegetation?
- Describe the vegetation pattern of Nigeria
- List the zones of soils in Nigeria.
- Describe laterite soil.
- How is alluvial soil formed?
- The best soil for planting is ……..soil (a) sandy (b) clayey (c) loamy
- Sandy soil is more dominant in which of the following areas? (a) Warri (b) Lagos (c) Kano
- Laterite soil is more dominant in which of the following areas? (a) Makurdi (b) Lagos (c) Kano
- Savanna vegetation is characterized with (a) trees (b) grasses (c) raffia palms
- Soil porosity is highest in ……… soil (a) sandy (b) loamy (c) clayey
- Define soil erosion.
- Mention three areas of wind erosion in Nigeria.