SS 3 Chemistry (2nd Term)

Chemistry

VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

Volumetric Analysis Volumetric analysis involves acid base titration. Mole Ratio Mole ratio is the ratio of the reacting species.  This determines the ratio of the acid that would react with the base. Examples are H2SO4  +  2NaOH                            Na2SO4 + 2H2O   CaVa   =  ½ CbVb 2HCl + Na2CO3              2NaCl +H2O + CO2 CaVa =    […]

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Chemistry

Test for Anions

Identification of gases e.g CO2, SO2 and O2. Characteristics test for anions e.g SO42-,SO32-,CO32-,NO-3, Cl–, etc. The anions are negatively change ions examples of anions are SO42-,SO32-,CO32-,S2- etc.   Identification of Gases Gases               identification H2 It gives a ‘pop’ sound when the gas is contact with a lighted splint. O2             It rekindles a glowing

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Chemistry

INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Introduction to Qualitative Analysis Test for carbons using H2S, NaOH and NH4OH, Confirmatory Test for the cat ions.   What is Qualitative Analysis? Qualitative analysis involves examination of colour, flame test, effect of heat and confirmatory test for cat ion and anions. Cations are metallic ions e,g Ca2+, Pb2+, Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+ , Fe3+, etc

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Chemistry

METALS AND THEIR COMPOUND

Aluminum can be obtained as Kaolin, Al2O3.2SiO3.2H2O, cryolite. Na3AlF6, Corundum Al2O3 and mica K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2. NB: the main source of aluminum is bauxite Al2O3.2H2O Extraction Aluminum can be found in clay and rocks, but due to their high silica content, they can not be used for extraction of aluminum. The extraction of aluminum is carried out

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Chemistry

PRELIMINARY PREPARATION

Metals are found mixed with earthy materials as ores. Ores are often concentrated and converted to oxides before extraction Concentration of the ore can be  done by any of the following ways: washing away the earthy materials Froth- flotation (zinc ore): The ore is agitated (churned up ) with oil and water to form a

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Chemistry

METALLIC BONDING | FULL EXPLANATION

The atoms of metals are held together in crystal lattice by metallic bonds Properties they are good conductors of electricity and heat high melting and boiling points they are malleable and ductile they ionize by loosing electrons Factors affecting the formation of metal strength The Valence Electrons Intermolecular Bonding This is the type of chemical

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Chemistry

SIMPLE MOLECULES AND THEIR SHAPES

SIMPLE MOLECULES AND THEIR SHAPES Covalent Molecules e.g methane, diamond, crystalline solid – their network structure e.g diamond.   Simple Molecules and their shapes The factors that is  responsible for the shape of simple covalent molecules are sharing of electron that leads to overlapping of two atomic orbital the central atom and their valence shell

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Chemistry

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Nuclear Reaction This is the spontaneous emission of radiation that involves the nuclei of radioactive element.   Nuclear Fusion This is the process in which two or more light nuclei of elements combine together to form a heavier nucleus with release of both energy and radiation. This process is used to produce hydrogen bomb, it

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Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry is an aspect of chemistry that deal with nuclei of atoms.  Radioactivity This is the spontaneous emission of radiation by radioactive element such as Thorium, Uranium etc.  Characteristics of Nuclear Chemistry Spontaneously and continually emitting of radiation by radioactive element Temperature and pressure have no effect on radioactivity The radiation can pass through

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