The atoms of metals are held together in crystal lattice by metallic bonds
Table of Contents
- they are good conductors of electricity and heat
- high melting and boiling points
- they are malleable and ductile
- they ionize by loosing electrons
Factors affecting the formation of metal strength
The Valence Electrons
This is the type of chemical bonding which can be found in some molecular solid. Examples of intermolecular forces are
- vander walls forces
- Hydrogen force/bond
Vander Waal Forces: this is the weak attractive forces that exist between the molecule.
Importance of Vander waal forces
- it is important in the liquefaction of gases
- it is used in the formation of molecular lattices like iodine and naphthalene crystals.
Hydrogen bonding occur when hydrogen is covalently bonded with strongly electronegative element e.g nitrogen, fluorine, oxygen.
These electronegative elements pall the shared pair of electrons in the covalent bonds toward themselves. Thus it results in dipole where the hydrogen is positive and the electronegative element is negative.
An electrostatic attraction set up when the positive pole of one molecule attract the negative pole of another molecule.
NB: The attractive force that exist between the two poles is called hydrogen bond.
Example of hydrogen bond
- Hydrogen fluoride molecules
- Water molecules (ice crystal)
NB: There is covalent bond in a molecule of water while hydrogen bond is formed in molecules of water.
It helps in the formation of water, alkanols and some organic acid molecules
- State the type of chemical bond found in the following substances
- Sodium chloride
- Ammonium chloride
- Molecules of hydrogen fluoride
- A molecule of hydrogen
2. State four properties of the following chemical bonds:
- Electrovalent bond
- covalent bond
- dative bond
- hydrogen bond
- metallic bond