Chemistry

Chemistry

APPPLIED CHEMISTRY

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY Chemical industry is define as one that uses chemistry to make chemicals from other chemical substances (raw materials) The important raw materials used in chemical industry include (i) air (ii) CaCO3 (iii) Sea water and rock salt (iv) Sulphur (v) Metallic mineral ore (vi) Coal          (vii) Natural gas and petroleum.   SOURCES OF […]

APPPLIED CHEMISTRY Read More »

Chemistry

HYDROCARBONS

HYDROCARBON AND CRUDE OIL Hydrocarbon are very simple organic compound composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon only. The sources of hydrocarbons are coal, natural gases and petroleum. Hydrocarbon can be divided into two main classes: Aliphatic hydrocarbon Aromatic hydrocarbon   ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON They are further divided into three groups: Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes. The Aliphatic

HYDROCARBONS Read More »

Chemistry

TRIOXOCARBONATE (iv) ACID

H2CO3 is formed when CO2(g) is dissolved in water. H2CO3 is a weak dibasic acid. It forms two series of salts: Normal trioxocarbonate (iv) Acidic hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv)   Normal trioxocarbonate (iv) Normal trioxocarbonate (iv) may be regarded as salts derived from H2CO3 by the complete replacement of the hydrogen by a metal or cationic

TRIOXOCARBONATE (iv) ACID Read More »

Chemistry

COAL AND FUEL GASES

COAL Coal is an impure form of carbon. Coal is a complex mixture of compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with small amounts of nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus as impurities. Carbonization of coal. Coal was formed by the gradual decomposition of plant vegetation under pressure and in the absence of air. Carbon (iv)

COAL AND FUEL GASES Read More »

Chemistry

OXIDE OF CARBON

CARBON (iv) OXIDE The percentage composition of carbon (iv) oxide in the atmospheric air is about 0.03% by volume while in dissolved air is about 0.50% by volume.   Laboratory preparation Carbon (iv) oxide is prepared in the laboratory by the action of dilute acids on a trioxocarbonate (iv) or a hydrogen trioxocarbonate (iv). Usually

OXIDE OF CARBON Read More »

Chemistry

BASES AND ALKALIS

A base is a substance which will neutralize an acid to yield a salt and water only. Most oxide and hydroxide of metals are bases e.g. Na2O, K2O, MgO, NaOH, KOH e.t.c. An alkalis is a basic hydroxide which is soluble in water NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2. A basic oxide (or hydroxide) is a metallic oxide

BASES AND ALKALIS Read More »

Structure of The Atom

Atomic orbitals are a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics that describes the behavior and distribution of electrons within an atom. They provide a mathematical representation of the probability density of finding an electron at a specific location in the atom’s electron cloud.

Structure of The Atom Read More »

LABORATORY : DEFINITION, APPARATUS, USES & SAFETY RULES

DEFINITION OF LABORATORY A laboratory, often referred to as a lab, is a dedicated space specifically designed and equipped to facilitate scientific experimentation, analysis, and research activities. Within the confines of a laboratory, scientists, researchers, and technicians delve into the mysteries of the natural world, unravel complex phenomena, and push the boundaries of human knowledge.

LABORATORY : DEFINITION, APPARATUS, USES & SAFETY RULES Read More »

ELEMENTS, SYMBOLS & VALENCY

ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS Elements and symbols play a fundamental role in the field of chemistry. An element is a pure substance composed of atoms that all have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. These atoms are considered the building blocks of matter and cannot be further divided into simpler units by ordinary

ELEMENTS, SYMBOLS & VALENCY Read More »

COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES

COMPOUND A compound can be defined as a substance that is composed of two or more elements that are chemically bonded together. These elements combine through a chemical reaction to form a compound, resulting in a distinct substance with unique properties and characteristics. Here are some examples of compounds and their constituent elements: 1. Water:

COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES Read More »

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES

STANDARD SEPARATION TECHNIQUES The importance of separating a mixture into its constituents cannot be over-emphasized, as it is crucial to obtain substances in their purest form for various applications and purposes. Fortunately, there exist numerous standard separation techniques that enable the isolation of different components within a mixture. These techniques encompass a wide range of

SEPARATION TECHNIQUES Read More »

NATURE OF MATTER

ATOMS AND MOLECULES Matter, the substance that occupies physical space and possesses mass, is composed of discrete particles, each playing a unique role in its composition and behavior. These particles include atoms, molecules, and ions, which form the fundamental building blocks of matter. An atom, considered the fundamental unit of an element, is the smallest

NATURE OF MATTER Read More »

IUPAC Nomenclature of Chemical Compounds

NAMING OF BINARY COMPOUNDS Nomenclature refers to the essential system utilized for assigning names to chemical compounds. The primary authority responsible for developing and maintaining this system is the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). IUPAC’s nomenclature guidelines play a crucial role in ensuring uniformity and clarity in the naming of chemical substances.

IUPAC Nomenclature of Chemical Compounds Read More »

Chemistry

ALKANOLS

Alkanols is a homologous series with general molecular formula of CnH2n+1OH or ROH. The functional group in alkanols is the hydroxyl (-OH) group.   NOMENCLATURE The names of alkanols are obtained by substituting “e” in alkanes with “ol”. Example: Methanol – CH3OH, Ethanol – CH3CH2OH   CLASSIFICATION The alkanols are classified based on the number

ALKANOLS Read More »

Chemistry

ALKYNES II

Alkynes are the homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbon with a general molecular formula CnH2n-2.

Alkynes show a high degree of unsaturation than alkenes, hence, they are chemically more reactive than the corresponding alkenes or alkanes.

ALKYNES II Read More »

Get Fully Funded Scholarships

Free Visa, Free Scholarship Abroad

           Click Here to Apply

Acadlly