Chemistry

Chemistry

CHLORINE AND OTHER HALOGENS

Halogens (salt formers) are found in group VII of the periodic table. They are the most reactive nonmetals. They have seven valence electrons, they exist as diatomic molecules, and they are coloured and ionizes to form univalent negative ions. They form electrovalent compounds with metals. In the group are chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine.

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Chemistry

OXYGEN AND ITS COMPOUNDS

Oxygen is the most abundant element on earth. It constitutes 21% by volume of atmospheric air.  Occurrence: It occurs as free elements in nature and in combined states. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN FAMILY Elements in group VI include: Oxygen (O), Sulphur (S), Selenium (Se), Tellurium (Te), and Polonium (Po).their properties are as follows: They are

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Chemistry

VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

Volumetric Analysis Volumetric analysis involves acid base titration. Mole Ratio Mole ratio is the ratio of the reacting species.  This determines the ratio of the acid that would react with the base. Examples are H2SO4  +  2NaOH                            Na2SO4 + 2H2O   CaVa   =  ½ CbVb 2HCl + Na2CO3              2NaCl +H2O + CO2 CaVa =   

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Chemistry

Test for Anions

Identification of gases e.g CO2, SO2 and O2. Characteristics test for anions e.g SO42-,SO32-,CO32-,NO-3, Cl–, etc. The anions are negatively change ions examples of anions are SO42-,SO32-,CO32-,S2- etc.   Identification of Gases Gases               identification H2 It gives a ‘pop’ sound when the gas is contact with a lighted splint. O2             It rekindles a glowing

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Chemistry

INTRODUCTION TO QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Introduction to Qualitative Analysis Test for carbons using H2S, NaOH and NH4OH, Confirmatory Test for the cat ions.   What is Qualitative Analysis? Qualitative analysis involves examination of colour, flame test, effect of heat and confirmatory test for cat ion and anions. Cations are metallic ions e,g Ca2+, Pb2+, Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+ , Fe3+, etc

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Chemistry

METALS AND THEIR COMPOUND

Aluminum can be obtained as Kaolin, Al2O3.2SiO3.2H2O, cryolite. Na3AlF6, Corundum Al2O3 and mica K2O.Al2O3.6SiO2. NB: the main source of aluminum is bauxite Al2O3.2H2O Extraction Aluminum can be found in clay and rocks, but due to their high silica content, they can not be used for extraction of aluminum. The extraction of aluminum is carried out

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Chemistry

PRELIMINARY PREPARATION

Metals are found mixed with earthy materials as ores. Ores are often concentrated and converted to oxides before extraction Concentration of the ore can be  done by any of the following ways: washing away the earthy materials Froth- flotation (zinc ore): The ore is agitated (churned up ) with oil and water to form a

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Chemistry

METALLIC BONDING | FULL EXPLANATION

The atoms of metals are held together in crystal lattice by metallic bonds Properties they are good conductors of electricity and heat high melting and boiling points they are malleable and ductile they ionize by loosing electrons Factors affecting the formation of metal strength The Valence Electrons Intermolecular Bonding This is the type of chemical

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Chemistry

SIMPLE MOLECULES AND THEIR SHAPES

SIMPLE MOLECULES AND THEIR SHAPES Covalent Molecules e.g methane, diamond, crystalline solid – their network structure e.g diamond.   Simple Molecules and their shapes The factors that is  responsible for the shape of simple covalent molecules are sharing of electron that leads to overlapping of two atomic orbital the central atom and their valence shell

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Chemistry

NUCLEAR REACTIONS

Nuclear Reaction This is the spontaneous emission of radiation that involves the nuclei of radioactive element.   Nuclear Fusion This is the process in which two or more light nuclei of elements combine together to form a heavier nucleus with release of both energy and radiation. This process is used to produce hydrogen bomb, it

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Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry is an aspect of chemistry that deal with nuclei of atoms.  Radioactivity This is the spontaneous emission of radiation by radioactive element such as Thorium, Uranium etc.  Characteristics of Nuclear Chemistry Spontaneously and continually emitting of radiation by radioactive element Temperature and pressure have no effect on radioactivity The radiation can pass through

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Chemistry

OXIDATION NUMBERS

It is often useful to follow chemical reactions by looking at changes in the oxidation numbers of the atoms in each compound during the reaction. Oxidation numbers also play an important role in the systematic nomenclature of chemical compounds. By definition, the oxidation number of an atom is the charge that atom would have if

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Chemistry

COMPOUND

In chemistry, a compound is a substance that results from a combination of two or more different chemical element s, in such a way that the atom s of the different elements are held together by chemical bonds that are difficult to break. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of

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Chemistry

PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER

Atoms are the basic units of matter and the defining structure of elements. Atoms are made up of three particles: protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons are heavier than electrons and reside in the center of the atom, which is called the nucleus. Electrons are extremely lightweight and exist in a cloud orbiting the

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Chemistry

MOLECULES AND ATOMICITY

A molecule is the smallest particle in a chemical element or compound that has the chemical properties of that element or compound. Molecules are made up of atom s that are held together by chemical bonds. These bonds form as a result of the sharing or exchange of electron s among atoms. The atoms of

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Chemistry

OXIDATION NUMBERS

It is often useful to follow chemical reactions by looking at changes in the oxidation numbers of the atoms in each compound during the reaction. Oxidation numbers also play an important role in the systematic nomenclature of chemical compounds. By definition, the oxidation number of an atom is the charge that atom would have if

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