A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data.
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The acronym GIS is sometimes used for Geographical Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems and is a large domain within the broader academic discipline of Geoinformatics.
In general, GIS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications are tools that allow users to create interactive queries (user-created searches), analyze spatial information, edit data in maps, and present the results of all these operations. Geographic information science is the science underlying geographic concepts, applications, and systems.
GIS data represents real objects (such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, waterways, etc.).
Real objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete objects (e.g., a house) and continuous fields (such as rainfall amount, or elevations).
Traditionally, there are two broad methods used to store data in a GIS for both kinds of abstractions mapping references: raster images and vector.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- What is GIS?
- Mention two features that can be represented with GIS.
- State three cultural features.
- Mention five physical features in your environment
- Define geography.
- Real objects can be divided into (a) continuous and circulatory (b) discrete and continuous (c) circulatory and discrete
- Raster images are used to (a) analyse data (b) interpret data (c) store data
- All are physical objects except (a) road (b) mountain (c) river
- Which of these is a socio-cultural feature? (a) airport (b) trees (c) lake
- ‘Geo’ refers to (a) description (b) space (c) earth
- State two uses of GIS.
- Write three features within the school that can be represented with GIS.