Millard Fillmore – 13th President of the US

Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) was an American politician who served as the 13th President of the United States from 1850 to 1853. He was born on January 7, 1800, in Locke, New York. Fillmore was the last Whig president and the last president not to be affiliated with either the Democratic or Republican parties.

Before becoming president, Fillmore had a successful career in law and politics. He served in the New York State Assembly and the U.S. House of Representatives, where he became known for his moderate stance on slavery. In 1848, he was chosen as the vice presidential candidate on the Whig ticket alongside Zachary Taylor, and they won the election.

Fillmore became president in 1850 following the death of President Taylor. His presidency was marked by sectional tensions over slavery, which eventually led to the Compromise of 1850. The compromise included measures such as the admission of California as a free state, the strengthening of the Fugitive Slave Act, and the abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia.

Fillmore’s support for the compromise alienated many Northern Whigs, and he failed to secure his party’s nomination for re-election in 1852. After leaving the presidency, Fillmore stayed active in public life, running as a candidate for president in 1856 as a nominee of the Know-Nothing Party but was not successful.

During the American Civil War, Fillmore took a more pro-Union stance, supporting the Union cause and President Abraham Lincoln. After the war, he essentially retired from politics and focused on his private life and philanthropic endeavors.

Millard Fillmore passed away on March 8, 1874, in Buffalo, New York. While he is not considered one of the most prominent or influential presidents in American history, his presidency played a role in attempting to navigate the complex issue of slavery leading up to the Civil War.

Early Life and Career

Millard Fillmore was born into a modest family in upstate New York. He worked as a cloth maker and a schoolteacher before studying law and establishing a successful legal practice in Buffalo, New York. Fillmore’s political career began in the New York state legislature, where he served from 1829 to 1831.

Millard Fillmore’s early life and career were marked by humble beginnings, hard work, and a drive for self-improvement. Here is an expanded account of his early life and the path that led him to a successful legal and political career:

1. Modest Upbringing: Millard Fillmore was born on January 7, 1800, in the town of Locke, located in upstate New York. He was the second of nine children born to Nathaniel Fillmore and Phoebe Millard Fillmore. His father was a farmer and small landowner, and the family lived in a modest log cabin. Growing up in a rural setting, young Fillmore learned the value of hard work and perseverance.

2. Early Work and Education: At the age of 14, Fillmore began working as a cloth maker’s apprentice, weaving wool and cotton fabrics. While working in the cloth trade, he demonstrated a keen interest in education and self-improvement. He saved money to buy books and taught himself various subjects, including mathematics, history, and law.

3. Teaching Career: Fillmore’s passion for learning led him to become a schoolteacher at the age of 19. He taught at various schools in New York, including in the towns of New Hope and Sempronius. Fillmore’s experience as a teacher not only allowed him to share his knowledge but also honed his public speaking and communication skills, which would later prove valuable in his political career.

4. Legal Studies and Practice: Inspired by his desire to pursue a career in law, Fillmore began studying law in 1819 under Judge Walter Wood in Montville, New York. He continued his legal studies in Buffalo, New York, under the guidance of attorney Asa Rice. Fillmore worked as a law clerk in Rice’s office, gaining practical experience while continuing his studies. In 1823, Fillmore was admitted to the New York State Bar, officially becoming a licensed attorney.

5. Political Beginnings: Fillmore’s entrance into politics came in 1828 when he was elected to the New York State Assembly. He served in the state legislature for three consecutive one-year terms, from 1829 to 1831. As a member of the assembly, Fillmore focused on issues such as education reform, infrastructure development, and economic growth. His legislative experience helped establish his reputation as a skilled and pragmatic politician.

Fillmore’s early life and career exemplify the American ideal of upward mobility through hard work and self-education. From his humble beginnings as a cloth maker’s apprentice, he pursued his passion for knowledge, teaching, and the law. These early experiences provided the foundation for Fillmore’s subsequent success as a lawyer, politician, and eventually, the 13th President of the United States.


Millard Fillmore’s educational background was modest but formative for his future career in law and politics. Here are some key aspects of his education:

1. Limited Formal Education: Fillmore had limited formal education during his early years. He attended a one-room schoolhouse in his hometown of Locke, New York, where he received a basic education in reading, writing, and arithmetic. His formal education ended when he was 15 years old.

2. Self-Education and Apprenticeships: After leaving formal schooling, Fillmore pursued self-education and took up apprenticeships to further his knowledge and skills. He worked as a cloth maker and a teacher, and during this time, he dedicated himself to self-study, particularly in law and politics.

3. Law Studies: Fillmore’s interest in law led him to pursue legal studies. He began studying law in 1819, first under Judge Walter Wood in Montville, New York, and later with Asa Rice in Buffalo, New York. Fillmore became a law clerk in Rice’s office and continued his studies while gaining practical experience.

4. Admission to the Bar: Fillmore was admitted to the New York State Bar in 1823, after completing his legal studies and passing the necessary examinations. This marked the formal recognition of his qualifications as a lawyer.

5. Lifelong Commitment to Education: Throughout his life, Fillmore remained committed to education. As an advocate for public education, he actively supported the establishment and development of schools. He played a significant role in the establishment of the University of Buffalo (now part of the State University of New York system) and served on its board of trustees.

Despite not having an extensive formal education, Fillmore’s commitment to self-improvement and his legal studies laid the foundation for his successful career in law and politics. His experiences demonstrate that dedication, self-study, and practical apprenticeships can shape one’s educational development and professional achievements.

Vice Presidency

Fillmore was elected as the vice president of the United States in 1848, running alongside President Zachary Taylor on the Whig Party ticket. During his vice presidency, Fillmore had little influence on policy matters, as Taylor largely excluded him from decision-making.

During Millard Fillmore’s vice presidency, his role was largely overshadowed by President Zachary Taylor, and he had limited influence on policy matters. Here is an expanded account of Fillmore’s vice presidency and his relationship with President Taylor:

1. Election of 1848: Fillmore was selected as the vice presidential candidate for the Whig Party in the 1848 presidential election. The Whigs nominated General Zachary Taylor, a popular war hero, as their presidential candidate. Fillmore, known for his reputation as a skilled politician, helped balance the ticket by providing experience and support.

2. Limited Role in Decision-making: Once in office, Fillmore found himself in a subordinate position to President Taylor. Taylor, a military man with little political experience, was determined to assert his authority and make decisions independently. As a result, Fillmore had limited involvement in policy discussions and was often excluded from key decision-making processes.

3. Relationship with President Taylor: Despite their differences in approach and style, Fillmore maintained a cordial working relationship with President Taylor. He respected Taylor’s military achievements and acknowledged his role as the head of the executive branch. Fillmore maintained a loyal and supportive stance toward the president, even when he had limited influence.

4. Public Appearances and Diplomatic Duties: As vice president, Fillmore still had ceremonial and representational responsibilities. He attended public events, delivered speeches, and represented the administration at official functions. Fillmore also served as the president of the Senate, presiding over its sessions and casting tie-breaking votes when necessary.

5. Impact on Policy and Administration: While Fillmore may have had limited influence during his vice presidency, he did play a role in managing relationships with members of Congress and maintaining a sense of stability within the administration. He served as a bridge between the executive and legislative branches, using his political acumen to build alliances and foster cooperation.

6. Succession to the Presidency: Fillmore’s vice presidency was cut short when President Taylor unexpectedly died in July 1850, just over a year into their term. Upon Taylor’s death, Fillmore assumed the presidency, bringing his own policy preferences and leadership style to the forefront.

While Fillmore’s vice presidency may have been marked by limited influence on policy matters, his experience in the role prepared him for the challenges he would face as president following Taylor’s untimely death.

Presidency and the Compromise of 1850

Upon Taylor’s sudden death in 1850, Fillmore assumed the presidency. One of the defining issues of his presidency was the intense debate over slavery, which threatened to tear the nation apart. Fillmore supported the Compromise of 1850, a set of laws designed to address the issue of slavery and maintain the fragile balance between free and slave states. The compromise was a controversial measure that attempted to appease both pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions.

Millard Fillmore’s presidency was marked by the critical issue of slavery and his support for the Compromise of 1850, a significant legislative effort to address the growing tensions between the North and the South. Here is an expanded account of Fillmore’s presidency and the Compromise of 1850:

1. Assumption of the Presidency: Upon President Zachary Taylor’s sudden death on July 9, 1850, Fillmore, who was then serving as vice president, took the oath of office and became the 13th President of the United States. He inherited a nation on the brink of disunion due to the contentious issue of slavery.

2. Slavery and Sectional Tensions: Slavery had long been a divisive issue in the United States, with significant disagreements between the North and the South. As the country expanded westward, the question of whether newly admitted states should allow or prohibit slavery intensified tensions between these regions.

3. The Compromise of 1850: The Compromise of 1850 was a series of laws introduced by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and supported by Fillmore. It aimed to address the issue of slavery by creating a delicate balance between free and slave states. The key provisions of the compromise included:

– California’s admission as a free state
– The formation of territorial governments without any explicit mention of slavery in Utah and New Mexico, allowing the question to be determined by popular sovereignty
– The abolition of the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in the District of Columbia
– A more stringent Fugitive Slave Act to strengthen the enforcement of capturing escaped slaves

The compromise aimed to appease both pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions by offering concessions to each side.

4. Passage and Impact: The Compromise of 1850 faced significant opposition from both Northern and Southern politicians, highlighting the deep divisions over the issue of slavery. However, Fillmore actively supported the compromise and played a crucial role in its passage. The laws were enacted and had far-reaching consequences, temporarily alleviating tensions but also intensifying anti-slavery sentiments in the North.

5. Controversies and Criticisms: While the Compromise of 1850 temporarily delayed the outbreak of the Civil War, it was met with criticism from both sides of the slavery debate. Anti-slavery advocates saw the Fugitive Slave Act as an infringement on the rights of free African Americans, while pro-slavery advocates believed the compromise did not adequately protect their interests. Fillmore faced criticism for supporting what some viewed as a compromise on the issue of human rights.

6. Legacy and Historical Interpretations: Fillmore’s support for the Compromise of 1850 marked a significant moment in his presidency and left a lasting impact on the nation’s history. The compromise maintained the balance between free and slave states for a brief period but ultimately failed to resolve the underlying tensions. The compromise’s provisions, particularly the Fugitive Slave Act, became sources of contention and further fueled the abolitionist movement in the North.

While Fillmore’s support for the Compromise of 1850 aimed to preserve the Union, it ultimately reflected the challenges of governing a deeply divided nation on the brink of a major crisis over the issue of slavery.

Foreign Policy

Fillmore’s presidency also witnessed significant developments in U.S. foreign policy. He sent Commodore Matthew Perry on an expedition to Japan, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854, opening up trade between the United States and Japan. Fillmore also pursued a policy of expansionism in Central America, known as the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, which aimed to prevent exclusive control of the proposed transoceanic canal by any one nation.

Foreign policy played a crucial role during Millard Fillmore’s presidency, as he sought to expand American influence and promote international trade. Here is an expanded account of Fillmore’s foreign policy initiatives and their impact:

1. Opening Diplomatic Relations with Japan: One of the significant achievements of Fillmore’s foreign policy was the opening of Japan to international trade. In 1852, Fillmore dispatched Commodore Matthew Perry and a fleet of U.S. Navy ships on an expedition to Japan. Perry’s mission aimed to establish diplomatic relations and secure trading rights with the isolated island nation. After extensive negotiations, the Treaty of Kanagawa was signed in 1854. The treaty allowed for the establishment of American trading posts in Japan, thus opening up diplomatic and economic relations between the two nations. This marked a significant shift in Japan’s foreign policy and set the stage for increased Western influence in the country.

2. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: Fillmore pursued a policy of expansionism and canal diplomacy, particularly in Central America. In 1850, his administration negotiated the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Great Britain. The treaty aimed to prevent either nation from exclusively controlling any future transoceanic canal across Central America, such as the proposed Panama Canal. It laid down the principle of equal access and non-discrimination, promoting cooperation between the United States and Britain in the region. The treaty was significant in shaping future discussions and agreements regarding the construction of a transoceanic canal.

3. Pursuit of Open Door Policy: Fillmore’s foreign policy also focused on promoting trade and economic interests globally. He pursued an “open door” policy, advocating for access to markets and equal trading opportunities for American merchants. Fillmore sought to secure commercial treaties with various nations, including countries in Europe and Asia, to expand American trade networks and ensure fair treatment for American businesses abroad.

4. Legacy and Impact: Fillmore’s foreign policy initiatives had both immediate and long-term impacts. The opening of Japan to trade had far-reaching consequences, as it set the stage for increased Western influence and modernization in Japan. The Treaty of Kanagawa laid the foundation for a more comprehensive treaty system that led to the Meiji Restoration and transformed Japan into a major global power.

Regarding the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, while it failed to achieve its original goal of building a canal, it established the principle of international cooperation in managing future canal projects. It laid the groundwork for subsequent treaties and negotiations that ultimately led to the construction of the Panama Canal decades later.

Fillmore’s foreign policy demonstrated his administration’s efforts to expand American trade, secure diplomatic relations, and assert American influence on the global stage. These initiatives left a lasting impact on U.S. foreign relations, particularly in East Asia and Central America, shaping subsequent events and policies in those regions.

Immigration and Know-Nothing Party

During Fillmore’s presidency, there was a rise in nativist sentiment and anti-immigrant attitudes in the United States. The Know-Nothing Party, also known as the American Party, emerged during this period. Fillmore joined the party and ran as its candidate for president in 1856, but he was unsuccessful in winning the election.

During Millard Fillmore’s presidency, the United States experienced a surge in nativist sentiment and anti-immigrant attitudes. This led to the rise of the Know-Nothing Party, also known as the American Party, which emerged as a political force during this period. Here is an expanded account of the nativist movement, the Know-Nothing Party, and Fillmore’s association with it:

1. Nativist Sentiment: In the mid-19th century, the United States saw a wave of immigration, particularly from Ireland and Germany. This influx of immigrants, primarily Catholic, led to fears and concerns among some segments of the population who saw the newcomers as a threat to American identity, culture, and political stability. Nativist sentiment arose from these fears, advocating for the protection of the interests and privileges of native-born Americans.

2. Formation of the Know-Nothing Party: The Know-Nothing Party emerged as a political response to the growing nativist sentiment. Officially known as the American Party, the name “Know-Nothing” derived from the party’s secretive nature. When questioned about their activities, members were instructed to reply, “I know nothing.” The party gained popularity in the mid-1850s, particularly in the Northeast and Midwest.

3. Anti-Immigrant Platform: The Know-Nothing Party’s platform was largely based on opposition to immigration and a commitment to preserving the political power and cultural dominance of native-born Americans. They sought to restrict immigration, especially from Catholic-majority countries and imposed stringent naturalization requirements. The party was also characterized by its anti-Catholic sentiments, as it believed that Catholics owed loyalty to the Pope and not to the United States.

4. Fillmore’s Association: Millard Fillmore became associated with the Know-Nothing Party following his presidency. He joined the party and actively participated in its activities. Fillmore saw the party as an opportunity to address the growing nativist sentiment and unite various factions under a single banner. In 1856, he was nominated as the party’s candidate for president in an attempt to appeal to nativist voters and consolidate their support.

5. Unsuccessful Presidential Bid: Fillmore’s candidacy as the Know-Nothing Party nominee in the 1856 presidential election was not successful. He faced strong opposition from the emerging Republican Party and Democrat James Buchanan, who ultimately won the election. The Know-Nothing Party’s influence began to wane shortly after the election, as the issue of slavery took center stage in American politics.

6. Legacy and Historical Interpretations: Fillmore’s association with the Know-Nothing Party has been viewed by historians as a controversial aspect of his legacy. While Fillmore saw the party as a means to address nativist concerns and promote unity, his alignment with a party based on anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic sentiments has drawn criticism. It is worth noting that Fillmore’s association with the party occurred after his presidency and did not define his entire political career.

The rise of the Know-Nothing Party during Fillmore’s presidency reflects the nativist and anti-immigrant sentiment prevalent during the time. The party’s existence and Fillmore’s association with it underscore the complex and divisive nature of American politics and the challenges posed by immigration and cultural integration in the mid-19th century.

Later Life

After his presidency, Fillmore retired from politics but remained involved in public life. He focused on philanthropic endeavors, including supporting the establishment of the University of Buffalo (now part of the State University of New York system). Fillmore passed away on March 8, 1874, in Buffalo, New York.

Millard Fillmore’s presidency is often viewed as a transitional period in American politics, marking the decline of the Whig Party and the emergence of the Republican Party. His support for the Compromise of 1850 demonstrated his commitment to preserving the Union, but it also highlighted the deep divisions over slavery that would ultimately lead to the American Civil War.

Following his presidency, Millard Fillmore embarked on a new phase of his life marked by philanthropic endeavors and continued involvement in public affairs. Here is an expanded account of Fillmore’s later life:

1. Retirement from Politics: After leaving the presidency in 1853, Fillmore chose to retire from active political life. He did not seek elected office again and instead focused on other pursuits while remaining engaged in public affairs.

2. Philanthropic Activities: Fillmore dedicated a significant portion of his later life to philanthropy. One of his notable contributions was his involvement in the establishment of the University of Buffalo (now the State University of New York at Buffalo). He actively supported the development and expansion of the university, including serving on its board of trustees. Fillmore believed in the importance of education and saw the university as a means to promote knowledge and intellectual progress.

3. Engagement in Public Affairs: While retired from politics, Fillmore remained interested and engaged in public affairs. He maintained correspondence with political figures, intellectuals, and friends, discussing current events and offering advice on various matters. His opinions and insights were sought by those who respected his political experience and wisdom.

4. Failure to Secure a Second Term: Fillmore made an attempt to return to the presidency in the 1856 election. He ran as the candidate of the American Party (Know-Nothing Party), hoping to capitalize on its anti-immigrant and nativist sentiments. However, his candidacy did not gain sufficient traction, and he was not successful in winning the election. The campaign marked his final foray into national politics.

5. Passing and Legacy: Millard Fillmore passed away on March 8, 1874, in Buffalo, New York, at the age of 74. His death marked the end of a life dedicated to public service and involvement in shaping American history. Fillmore’s legacy is often viewed in the context of his presidency, which was marked by the Compromise of 1850 and his efforts to preserve the Union amid rising tensions over slavery. While his presidency may have been overshadowed by the events that followed, Fillmore’s contributions to education and philanthropy in his later years also left a lasting impact on his local community.

Millard Fillmore’s later life reflected his continued commitment to public service and his desire to make a positive impact on society. Despite not holding elected office, he remained active and engaged in philanthropy and the intellectual discourse of his time. His passing marked the end of an era and left a legacy that encompasses his presidency, his philanthropic endeavors, and his role as a transitional figure in American politics.

Marriage and Family

Millard Fillmore’s marriage and family life significantly influenced his personal and political journey. Here are some details about his marriage and family:

1. Marriage to Abigail Powers: Fillmore married Abigail Powers on February 5, 1826. Abigail was his childhood friend and former student when Fillmore was a teacher. She was highly educated and served as a source of support and influence throughout Fillmore’s career. Abigail shared her intellectual interests with her husband and encouraged his pursuit of higher education and political ambitions.

2. Children: Millard and Abigail Fillmore had two children together. Their first child, Millard Powers Fillmore, was born in 1828. Tragically, their second child, Mary Abigail Fillmore, known as Mary, was born in 1832 but died of cholera in 1854. The loss of their daughter was a profound and devastating event for the Fillmore family.

3. White House Hostess: Abigail Fillmore served as the First Lady of the United States during her husband’s presidency. She took on the role of White House hostess and was known for her intelligence, grace, and charm. Despite her limited social events due to her husband’s short presidency, she made efforts to engage in cultural activities and support education initiatives.

4. Family Support: Fillmore’s family played an important role in his political career. Abigail’s intelligence and knowledge influenced her husband’s decisions and speeches. She often served as his advisor and confidante. Additionally, Fillmore’s sister, Olive Fillmore, lived with the couple and helped manage their household affairs.

5. Later Years: After leaving the presidency, Fillmore and his wife returned to Buffalo, New York. Unfortunately, Abigail fell ill with pneumonia and passed away on March 30, 1853, just over a year after leaving the White House. Fillmore never remarried and continued to honor Abigail’s memory.

Millard Fillmore’s marriage to Abigail Powers and their family life provided him with personal support and guidance throughout his political career. Abigail’s influence and shared values, particularly in education and intellectual pursuits, shaped Fillmore’s decisions and legacy.

Achievements and Actions during Millard Fillmore’s Presidency

1. Compromise of 1850: Fillmore played a significant role in the passage of the Compromise of 1850, a set of laws that aimed to address the growing tensions over slavery in the United States. The compromise allowed California to enter the Union as a free state, established a more stringent Fugitive Slave Act, and provided for the concept of popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico. While the Compromise of 1850 did not ultimately resolve the issue of slavery, it temporarily eased tensions and delayed the onset of the American Civil War.

2. Opening Diplomatic Relations with Japan: Fillmore’s administration made significant strides in opening diplomatic and trade relations with Japan. He sent Commodore Matthew Perry on an expedition to Japan, resulting in the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa in 1854. The treaty marked the first formal agreement between the United States and Japan, paving the way for expanded trade and cultural exchange between the two nations.

3. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: Fillmore pursued a policy of expansionism and canal diplomacy. He negotiated the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Britain in 1850, which aimed to prevent either nation from exclusively controlling any future canal built across Central America. The treaty laid the groundwork for future efforts to construct a transoceanic canal, such as the Panama Canal.

4. Strengthening the Navy: Fillmore recognized the importance of a strong naval force and worked to expand and modernize the U.S. Navy. His administration approved the construction of new warships and increased funding for naval operations. This bolstered America’s maritime capabilities and positioned the nation for greater influence in global affairs.

5. Preserving the Union: Fillmore’s support for the Compromise of 1850 was motivated by a desire to maintain the unity of the United States. Despite the criticism and controversy surrounding the compromise, Fillmore believed that preserving the Union and avoiding a civil war were crucial objectives. His efforts aimed to prevent the secession of Southern states and maintain stability in the nation.

It’s important to note that Fillmore’s presidency was marked by significant challenges and divisive issues, and his actions were not without criticism. However, these achievements provide some insight into his presidency and his contributions to American history during a turbulent era.

Failures or shortcomings during Millard Fillmore’s presidency

1. Ineffectiveness in Addressing the Issue of Slavery: Despite his support for the Compromise of 1850, Fillmore’s attempt to find a compromise on the issue of slavery ultimately proved to be unsuccessful in the long run. The compromise may have temporarily eased tensions, but it did not provide a lasting solution. The deep-rooted divisions over slavery continued to escalate, ultimately leading to the American Civil War just over a decade later.

2. Limited Influence and Political Marginalization: Fillmore’s presidency was marked by his limited influence and marginalization within his own party. He was not able to assert his authority or shape policy to a significant extent, as President Zachary Taylor, whom he served under as vice president, excluded him from key decision-making processes. Fillmore’s presidency was further overshadowed by the rising influence of other political figures and factions, such as Stephen A. Douglas and the emerging Republican Party.

3. Failure to Secure Reelection or a Second Term: Fillmore’s bid for reelection in 1852 was unsuccessful. He was not able to secure his party’s nomination for a second term, and the Whig Party as a whole was facing internal divisions and declining popularity. The nomination went to General Winfield Scott, who ultimately lost the election to the Democratic candidate, Franklin Pierce. Fillmore’s inability to secure a second term reflects the overall challenges and declining support faced by the Whig Party at the time.

4. Lack of Significant Legislative Achievements: Fillmore’s presidency was not marked by any major legislative accomplishments. While he did support the Compromise of 1850, which had some lasting impact, his administration did not introduce or pass any significant legislation that left a lasting imprint on the nation’s laws or policies.

It is important to consider the context and challenges of the time, but these failures or shortcomings during Fillmore’s presidency have contributed to his reputation as a somewhat lackluster or ineffective president.


Millard Fillmore’s presidency, from 1850 to 1853, was defined by his support for the Compromise of 1850, a series of laws aimed at addressing the issue of slavery and maintaining the Union. Fillmore’s presidency marked a transitional period in American politics, as the Whig Party declined and the Republican Party began to emerge. His attempts to balance the interests of both pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions through the compromise showcased the deep divisions over slavery that would ultimately lead to the American Civil War. Fillmore’s foreign policy efforts included opening diplomatic relations with Japan through the Treaty of Kanagawa and pursuing expansionist goals in Central America, as evidenced by the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. While his presidency had its limitations and controversies, including his association with the Know-Nothing Party, Fillmore’s legacy also includes his philanthropic endeavors, particularly his support for the establishment of the University of Buffalo.

Read also:

Zachary Taylor – 12th President of the US

James Knox Polk – 11th President of the US

John Tyler – 10th President of the US

William Henry Harrison – 9th President of the US

Martin Van Buren – 8th President of the US

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