COMPREHENSION AND WRITING SKILLS
Introduction to Summary Writing
Table of Contents
The Test: Summary section seeks to test the candidate’s ability to extract or pick relevant information from a longer passage and present that information in clear, concise language.
Read over the passage once or twice for thorough understanding
Read the questions based on the passage
Read the passage once again making notes or jotting down points that will help you to answer the questions.
Write out your answers.
Read over the questions and your answer to ensure there is no error.
Read the passage on page 77 of Effective English and answer the summary questions on page 79
SPELLING: PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES
Prefixes are words or syllable placed before a root-word to form another word; e.g. un, non, dis, mis, super, trans, ex e.t.c
SUFFIXES are words or syllables placed after a root word to form another word e.g. –ness, -ment, er, ship, -ation, ant, less, e.t.c.
Form five new words by adding prefixes to the root words.
Look up the meaning of each of the following morphemes and form five words with it.
ADVERBIAL AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
Adverbial Phrases: The main function of adverbs and adverbial phrases is to modify verbs, answering the following questions
How? When? Why? Where? To what extent?
They also modify adjectives, other adverbs and prepositional phrases. Any group of words containing no verb and performing those functions is an adverbial phrase.
Types of Adverbial Phrases
Adverbial phrase of manner e.g.
He does the work with zeal/ very well.
Adverbial phrase of time e.g.
I saw him in the morning.
Adverbial phrase of place e.g.
I met him at the supermarket
Adverbial phrase of contrast
Despite her promise, she behaved differently.
In spite of the good advice, she did not change her behaviour.
His strength notwithstanding, he lost the fight.
A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun phrase or pronoun e.g.
For the man
At the bank
About what he did
Functions of a prepositional phrase:
The prepositional phrase is used
(i)As an adverbial phrase e.g.
The police caught the thief in the garden.
At a later date, we confronted him.
(ii)As an adjective:
The man with a hat is our teacher.
The news of his death shocked everyone
(iii)As complement of a verb
We believe in what he says.
(iv)As complement of an adjective
We are sure of his arrival.
Indicate the adverbial phrases in the following sentences.
The car moved slowly towards the church.
My sister eats more slowly.
For all his experience, he was easily deceived by the students.
He worked hard to pass the examination.
GENERAL EVALUATION/ REVISION QUESTIONS
From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that best completes each of the following sentences.
- I have —– some money for my surgical operation next month (a) put out (b) put in (c) put by (d) put down
- I am much —– to listen to you now. (a) busy (b) too busy (c) more busy
(d) extremely busy
- —– can all come to the party (a) you two (b) the three of you (c) both of you
(d) Simbo and Jide
- She advised her son against ———- (a) goodwill (b) haggling (c) insubordination (d) obedience ( e) subordination
- The Governor paid a ——– call on the Oba. (a) courtesy(b) crank (c) farewell (d) roll (e) wake up
Choose the option nearest in meaning to the underlined words
- They decided to turn him down (a) refuse him (b) deny him (c) discredit him
- She gave her candid opinion on every issue (a) good (b) frank (c) vague
- The commentator described the recent event as catastrophic (a) disastrous (b) unfortunate (c) evil
- The boy was proficient in whatever he did (a) inept (b) skilled (c) contented
- I was warned against his erratic nature (a) immoral (b) insane (c) unpredictable
Write five sentences and underline the adverbial phrases in them.
Write five sentences and underline the prepositional phrases in them.