Taxi- The process of a plane moving slowly along the ground before beginning to run forward for take-off.

Runway: This is a wide path from which aircraft take off and on which they land.

Tarmac: This is a surface of a road, runway at an airport. E,g The plane was waiting on a tarmac.

Air hostess: A young woman who looks after passengers in an aircraft.

Flight: A journey in a plane.

Air borne: In the air. If a plane is airborne, it is in the air.

Radar: This is the method of showing the direction and the distance of a plane by means of radio waves.

Touch down: A plane touches down when it lands.

Hangar: This is where aircraft are housed

Control tower: This is where air traffic controllers sit and direct plane traffic

Cockpit: A compartment in which the pilot of an aeroplane sits.




Mast: a long pole set upright on a ship to support the sail or flag.

International waters: waters across the country’s water territory. It is called waters- not water.

Berth: a place in port where a ship can be moored.

Boatyard: this is a place where boats are built or repaired or fasten by rope.

Harbor: A place of shelter for ship.

Quayside: This is the side or edge of a quay.

Ocean liner- Ship used to carry passengers and some cargo is across the ocean

Cruise ship- This type of ship is used for adventurism

Cabin: This is a private room in a ship

Yacht: A boat or small ship, usually with sails, often with an engine, built and used for racing or cruising.

Row-row ship- This is used to convey cars into the country. Such ship will be widely opened for various cars on the ship to be driven out.

Dredging: This is the clearing or deepening the river or body of water.

Dock: This is a platform built on the shore [wharf].

Coast: This is land along the sea.

Crew: A group of people who works or operates on a ship.

Captain: This is a commander of a ship.

Off shore: In or on the sea, not far from the coast. The opposite of this is ‘on-shore’

Flag: This is the flag a country mounted on a ship with which it sails.

Anchor: This is something, usually a heavy piece of metal with points which dig into the sea-bed, used to hold a boat or a ship.



Coach: A passenger railway train.

Freight: Goods or cargo.

Locomotive: Engine that goes from place to place using its own power, especially used to pull railway trains.

Railway yard: A place where trains are parked or maintained.

Commuter trains: These carry passengers between large cities and the surrounding suburbs.

Freight service: This is a service which involves transportation of goods from one place to another.

Rail tracks. These are tracks on which a train moves.


EVALATION: Form ten sentences using words that are related to aviation industry.




Noun clause


A noun clause is a subordinate clause that performs the functions of a noun


(i)As a subject of a sentence.


What he said  is bitter

That he was insulted pained him a great deal.

(ii)As object of a verb:

The cook gave us what we should eat.

He told us that he would come.

(iii)As complement of subject

Honesty is what we need.

The important thing is  that he has arrived

(ii)As complement  of a preposition

We call him what he likes.

(iii)As object complement

The prize will go to whoever wins.



Write five sentences containing noun clauses. Write the grammatical functions of each noun clause.




Consonant sounds

The 24 consonant sounds

The consonants are sounds realized when the air that comes from the lungs is obstructed.

The 24 consonant sounds

Voiced bilabial Nasal stop /m/

As in many, summer, bomb, damn

Voiceless bilabial plosive/p/

The upper and the lower lips are pressed together.

As in picture, apple, tripper

Voiced bilabial  plosive /b/

/b/ – baby, robber, baboon

Voiceless labio-dental fricative /f/

As in firm, rough, physics

Voiced labio-dental fricative/v/

As in vigour, Stephen, of, Volkswagen

Voiceless dental fricative/ θ /

As in “th” – thank, author, path,

Voiced dental fricative /ð/

The sound is made the same way the sound / θ /  is produced.

“th” – than, that, gather

Voiced alveolar nasal stop/n/

As in: new, banner, pneumonia , known , gnash

Voiceless alveolar plosive /k/

As in “t”- two, attack, Thomas smashed, missed

Voiced alveolar plosive /d/

As in: Standard, breed, sudden

Voiceless alveolar fricative /s/

As in: Saturday, miss, grass, rice, axe science

Voiced alveolar fricative /z/

As in: zero, dizzy, please, scissors examples

Voiced alveolar lateral /l/

As in lip, hello

Voiced alveolar /r/

As in rain, carrot, write, wrinkle, rhetoric

Voiceless  post alveolar fricative /ʃ/

As in sure, schedule, shabby, mission, machine, precious, nation

Voiced post alveolar fricative /Ӡ/

As in: measure, treasure, pleasure, confusion, beige, Jean

Voiceless post alveolar affricative/tʃ/

As in cello, change, question, pasture

Voiced post alveolar affricative /dӠ/

/d З/ is a voiced sound

As in jug, George, ginger, gym, educate

Voiceless palatal Approximant /j/

As in yam, halleluyah, unity, Europe

Voiced velar nasal stop//

As in sing, bank, anchor, include, anxious

Voiceless velar plosive /k/

As in cat, crack, chemical king, queue, account

Voiced velar plosive /g/

As in goat, haggle, ghost

Voiced labio velar /w/

As in wear, where, whistle

Voiceless, Glottal Fricative /h/

As in hope, whole, Llanfair



Write 10 consonants sounds and give two examples for each

Reading Assignment

Standard Speech Book 10: Diction in English Course page 1-10



A narrative essay is the one that requires you to relate an event or incident as an eye-witness would. It requires imagination

Study the following short passage:

It was pitch-dark outside the bedroom. It must have been that the security light was not switched on before we went to bed. There was some movement outside one of the windows. I listened. As I got up from bed to check at the windows, a flash of light through the window dazzled my eyes. I shouted “thief” and the next thing I heard was a gun shot.


The writer is here trying to paint a picture in words. It is only by your own imagination that this picture can be made more beautiful.



Write a narrative essay that ends with “It pays to be hardworking”



From the words lettered A to D, choose the word that has the same consonant  sound as the one represented by the letter(s) underlined.

  1. was a.  girls   .b. raise  c. rice      d. sing
  2. Insure             a. pleasure   b. cheap      c. vision  d. ocean
  3. Mixed             a .pumped  b. thronged   c. climbed  d. sponged

4          Gear                a. gesture    b .near  c. fair  d. neighbour

  1. Drink              a. strength  b. dent  c. snag  d. enough


See also






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