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/l/ in the production of /l/, the tip of the tongue makes contact with the alveolar ridge. This obstruction causes a partial obstruction of the airstream which however passes along the sides of the tongue. The local card vibrates during the production of /l/ and the consonant is therefore a voiced alveolar lateral. The usual spelling symbol is “l” but it is a silent in word like “Psalm” “walk”, “yolk”, “could”, “should” etc.

(b)        /P/ for the production of /P/, the upper and lower lip are brought together to obstruct the flow of the airstream from the lungs. This obstruction does not last long as there is an immediate release of the air pressure which build up. There is no vibration of the vocal card while /P/ is produced. On the whole /p/ is voiceless bilabial plosive.


The spelling symbol for /p/ is not pronounced in words like “Psalm” “empty”, pneumonia and a few other words.

(c)        /s/  for the articulation of /s/, the tip and blade of the tongue make a light contact with the  alveolar ridge while the airstream passes through the groove created by partial obstruction . Ii is therefore voiceless, alveolar plosive. The common spelling far /s/ are as follows:

“S” as in Seat

“SC” as in Science

“C” as in cease

“x” as in axe


See also






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