# DIGITALIZATION OF DATA

## COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM

A computer system consists of three main parts otherwise called components. They are :

1. Hardware
2. Software
3. People ware

## HARDWARE COMPONENT

The computer hardware could be defined as the physical parts of the computer that we see, feel and handle. It consists of device for input, processing, storage, output and communications.

Hardware can be divided into two sections:

1. System Unit
2. The peripherals

## HARDWARE

Hardware is the physical parts of the computer system that you can see and touch. They are the components that make up the visible computer. It consists of devices for input, processing, storage, output and communications.

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The basic parts of computer hardware can be divided into:

1. System Unit
2. Peripherals

### CPU/SYSTEM UNIT

The CPU is the brain of computer system and it can subdivided into:

1. Control Unit
2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit
3. Memory Unit

### CONTROL UNIT

This is the unit of the computer system that fetches instructions from the main storage, interpret them and issue all the necessary signals to the components making up the system.

### ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC UNIT

This part of the CPU is where all arithmetic operations are carried out  in the computer. This unit is also involved in decision making. Logic functions such as less than (<), equal (=), greater than (>) etc which are operations of comparisons are used for decision making.

### MEMORY UNIT

The memory or primary storage unit is the place in the computer where the program and  the data are stored. The computer memory is divided into two namely:

1. Random Access Memory (RAM)

### PERIPHERALS

The peripherals are devices outside the CPU but function under the control of the CPU e.g mouse, keyboard, printer etc.

EVALUATION

1. What are the components of the computer system?
2. What are the classes of hardware?

## SOFTWARE

Software is the set of instructions that is used to direct the computer hardware to perform its tasks. That is, it is a set of instructions that makes the users to do work and allow the computer to operate. Software is basically programs i.e another name for software is program.Program is the sequence of instructions given to computer to solve a given problems or accomplish a given task. There are two main classes of software which are:

1. System software
2. Application software

## SYSTEM SOFTWARE

These are programs written by the manufacturer to control the smooth running of the computer.

## APPLICATION SOFTWARE

These are programs written by programmers to instruct the computer to perform a particular task.

EVALUATION

1. What is software?
2. What is the difference between system and application software?

## PEOPLE WARE

These are people who make and use the computer. They range from professional users to operational users. A user could also be anyone who makes use of computer. Without people, the computer cannot work. There two main classes of people ware:

1. Computer professionals.
2. Computer users.

EVALUATION

1. Can the computer system work without people?
2. Software is subdivided into…………and ………
3. What are the three components of the system unit?
4. Explain the function of each component of the CPU.

## PERIPHERALS

Peripherals are in three categories:

1. Input Devices
2. Output Devices
3. Auxiliary Storage Devices

EVALUATION

1. What is the difference between input and  output device?
2. Give four examples of auxiliary device.

## MICRO COMPUTER

Sizes of Microcomputer are:laptop, palmtop, handtop, desktop, tower etc.

### PARTS OF MICROCOMPUTER

1. SYSTEM UNIT
2. MONITOR (VDU)
3. KEYBOARD
4. MOUSE

## THE MICROCOMPUTER

A computer is an electronic machine which accepts data as input, processes the data and gives out information under the control of stored programs. The information which the computergives out is called OUTPUT.

There are three keywords to note in the definition:

1. COMPUTER AS A MACHINE

This is the physical aspect of a computer known as computer hardware. It consists of electronic and electro-mechanical parts working together to process data.

1. COMPUTER PROCESSES DATA
1. It accepts data (input).
2. It processes data (processing).
• It supplies information (output).

## A COMPUTER IS CONTROLLED BY A STORED PROGRAM

A program is a set of instructions which tells the computer to perform a given task. A computer does not understand English or any of the Nigerian languages. Rather it has its own language called PROGRAM.

### MAIN PARTS OF A MICRO COMPUTER

The microcomputer is divided into three main parts namely:

1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
2. Monitor
3. Keyboard

CONCLUSION

We have learnt the definition of a computer, that is, computer is an electronic machine which accepts data as input, processes the data and gives out information under the control of stored programs. We also learnt that the computer is divided into three main parts which are Central Processing Unit, Monitor and Keyboard.

GENERAL EVALUATION

1. Mention the three main parts of microcomputer.
2. List the four types of computers according to size.
3. What is microcomputer?
4. State the difference between CPU and system unit.

## WEEKEND ASSIGNMENT

1. ……..is an electronic machine which accepts data as input, processes data and gives out information.  A. Television    B.  Computer   C.    Photocopier D.  None
2. A computer accepts data as……..A.  input  B.  output   C.  processing  D. store
3. The microcomputer is divided into ……..parts.  A.  3   B.   4    C.  5 D.  9
4. The information which the computer gives is called ……..   A. input   B.  output   C.   processing   D. None
5. The language the computer understands is called……..  A.   English    B.  programs    C.  French   D.  all languages

## THEORY

1. What is a program?
2. Mention the main parts of a computer.

DIGITALIZATION OF DATA

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS