Digitalization is the process of converting information into digital format. This information may represent an object, image, sound, document or a signal (usually an analog signal) organized into discrete set of its points or samples. This is the binary data that computers and many devices with computing capacity (such as digital camera and digital hearing aids) can process.
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Digitalization can also be defined as the integration of digital technologies into everyday life. Digital system uses a binary numeric system in which electronic pulses are represented by either 0 for a Low pulse or 1 for a High pulse. Digital can more easily represent symbols such as alphanumeric characters that represent real world data than the analog system.
BENEFITS OF DIGITALIZATION
- Long term preservation of documents
- Orderly archiving of documents
- Easy and customized access to information
- Easy information dissemination through images and text, CD-ROM, Internet, Intranet and extranets.
TYPES OF DIGITAL COMPUTER
- Micro computers
- Mini computers
- Mainframe computers
- Super computers
TECHNOLOGY OF DIFFERENT INFORMATION AGE
The ages are:
- Stone age
- Iron age
- Middle age
- Industrial age
- Electronic age
|Information age||Tools used||Purpose||Time period||Examples of tools in that age|
|Stone age||Stone||Sewing, cutting, counting, defence, transaction, storage, pottery exhibitions.||Below 12th century||Basalt, sandstone flint etc.|
|Iron age||Iron||Defence, Agric||12thcentury||Hoes and cutlass|
|Middle age||Writing materials||Knowledge transfer, education||12th and 13th century||Pen feather etc|
|Industrial age||Coals||Power development, faster movement||Late 18th and early 19th century||Cars, Ships etc|
|Electronic age||Computer||Storage, accuracy, soeed.
|Late 19th century and above||Circuit, Processor.|
- State the different information ages.
- State the tools used in each age.
EARLY COUNTING DEVICES
- Fingers and Toes
In the early days of man’s existence on earth, counting and simple arithmetic were performed using different parts of the body and some other counting aids. The following are devices used by people of ancient times.
FINGERS AND TOES
In ancient times, calculations were done by the use of fingers and toes. Fingers were usedfor simple addition and toes were used together with fingers in order to count up to twenty. The following problems were faced using fingers and toes to count:
- They could not be used conveniently to count numbers more than twenty.
- The result obtained from counting with fingers could not be easily remembered.
STONES AND PEBBLES
Stones were introduced for counting because of the limitations of counting with fingers and toes. Counting with stones involves building a pile of stones where each represents a quantity. The following were problems faced using stones as counting devices:
- Large numbers of stones were too heavy to carry from one place to other.
- It was cumbersome to count if the counting process involved large numbers.
The use of grains was introduced because of the heaviness of stones. Grains can be kernel, beans, rice, corn etc. Grains were used the same way as stones.
These are small pieces of wood that are used for counting in place of stones and grains. Children in nursery and primary schools use match sticks for counting.
MARKS ON THE WALL
This involves the use of sharp objects in drawing line on the wall for the purpose of counting.
Continuous marks on walls will make a wall dirty.
DISADVANTAGES OF EARLY COUNTING DEVICES
- They are difficult to carry about.
- Counting and calculation takes a lot of time.
- They are prone to mistakes.
- They cannot be used to count or calculate large numbers.
- Their results cannot be easily remembered.
- They have no storage facilities.
- Mention types of computer according to sizes.
- Which of the size is used for weather forecast?
- Another name for mainframe computer is ……
- List any two examples of mini computers.
- Mention the four categories of computers.
- The ancient man began counting by using ……A. fingers B. slide rule C. abacus D. none
- The following are examples of early counting methods except ……A. calculator B. pebbles C. grains D. none
- In using fingers and toes, you can only count up to …….A. 20 B. 40 C. 50 D. 100
- The following can be used for counting in the ancient times except…..A. fingers B. computer C. stones D. none
- The stages of development of the computer machine are known as……..A. computer age B. computer history C. computer generation D. all
- Mention any THREE early counting devices.
- List any TWO disadvantages of early counting devices