JSS 3 Basic Science (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term) Basic Science

Electrical Energy

Electrical energy are needed in industries ,officers and home for carrying out numerous essential operation for instance blender at home , television, iron and fridge all make use of electrical energy to operate .

Electric current is the flow or electron from one point to another in a  circuit in a metallic conductor called wires . An electronic circuit is the path for the passage of electron current from a cell or battery to lamp and back to the cell


An electric circuit is the path through which an electric current flow from a cell or battery to an appliance and back is the cell there are two major ways of connecting electrical circuit

(1) In series connecting circuit element are joined end so that saw current flow through each circuit element . Resistors in series total resistance R=R 1+ R2

(2) Connecting in parallel – the element of the circuit are connected in such a way that the high potential terminal of two circuit are joined to one point and the two element are joined to another point in the circuit

The arrangement ensures there is a uniform potential difference across the two elements where the current flow in them differ

Total Resistance R =1/RI+1/R2


The component of a circuit include the following

 (1) Resistor – This is in form of wire or other materials used to reduce or resist a flow of current . It has a unit called ohmns

(2) Lamp or bulb is used in a circuit to indicate the flow of electricity

(3) Switch is used in the circuit to put on or put off electric current

(4) Ammeter – is an instrument used to measures the amount of current following the unit is ampere (A)

(5) Voltmeter – is an instrument used to detect the flow of an electric current

(6) Galvanometer– is an instrument used to detect the flow of an electric current

(7) Fuse– is a piece of wire made of tin-lead alloy having a low melting point it is used to cut off electric current off when there is danger in the circuit

(8)Circuit breaker-This is a modern device that is introduced into the  house circuit to increase safety in the use of electricity in the house.

Open circuit– This is  a situation when an electric circuit does not conduct current because a switch is open i.e. a wire is broken.


  1. 1. Current is the flow of electron along a conductor . The symbol is the ratio of the potential different (v) across the end of the conductor to the current I following through the conductor

R= V



I = V / R

  1. IV. Potential difference (pod) is the difference in the electrical potentials between the terminals of a cell or battery in a closed circuit

Iv Electromotive force ( e. m. f ) is the electrical driving force between the terminals of a cell or battery in an open circuit


Houses are wired in parallel because of some advantages of parallel circuit. One of the reasons is that if one bulb in the house is turn out, others will stay on . However, in a series circuit ,all bulbs go off as soon as one of them burns out.


An electric meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, industries or  electric gadgets.

Meter reading


  Unit consumed Cost per unit Total amount

Previous reading


Present reading

48167 271 1291 naira  


      3498.61 naira


1. The flow of current is usually in the opposite direction to the flow of A. neutrons B. protons  C. electrons          D. atoms

2. Electric circuit are connected in _____ ways A. four  B. two  C. three D. five

3. A voltmeter is an instrument for measuring  A. current  B. resistance  C. capacitance  D. potential difference.

4. What is the name of electrical  element in the house circuit that is used for connecting electrical appliances?  A. sockets  B. fuse box  C. control switch  circuit breaker

4. What is the name of electrical element in the house circuit that is used for putting off electricity supply anytime there is a repair or installation? A. sockets  B. fuse box  C. control swtich     D. circuit breaker.

5. The amount of current flowing through an electric circuit is measured by   A. ammeter  B.ohmmeter  C. voltimeter  D. fuse 

6. The unit of measuring current is A. ohm B. voltage C. coulombs  D. ampere

7a. Mention four components of electric circuit

b.Explain the term electric circuit

c.Mention two ways of connecting electric circuit

  1. what is the full meaning of E. M . F

    See also




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