Simple Machine

A machine  is defined as any arrangement that enables work to be done easily.

Types of machine

There are different types of simple machines ;  lever, pulley,  wheel and axle,  inclined plane,  screw and jack  and hydraulic press .A machine is made of three important parts namely; pivot or fulcrum, effort and load.

The effort is a part of the machine where force is applied on the machine.

The pivot or fulcrum is the turning point of a machine or it is the joining part or link between the effort and the load.

Load is the force, weight or resistance to be overcome by a machine


These are simple machines that have unique arrangement of the three important parts that is  effort, load and pivot There are three classes of levers ; first class lever, second class lever and third class lever .The arrangement of the three important parts can be used to recognize which type of lever.

  1. First class lever, the pivot is between the load and the effort. Examples are scissors, plier ,see-saw ,claw hammer .
  2. Second class lever, the load is between the effort and pivot. Examples are wheel barrow, nutcrackers, nail, clippers, bottle openers.

3.Third class lever are those levers which have their effort between the pivot and the load. Examples  are  human forearm, laboratory tong and fishing rod.

INCLINED PLANE-is a simple machine used to objects to a higher or tower place. It  is heavier to push  a heavy object up a slope to a greater height than to lift the object up to the height.

PULLEYS – is a simple machine that changes the direction or amount of force. It is  a wheel with  a groove along its rim, and   a movable rope around its wheel.

A WEGDE – is a simple machine that works on the principles of an inclined plane. Wedges are used for cutting and piercing. Examples are knives, pin blades or axes.

EFFICIENCY – The efficiency of a machine is expressed as the ratio of energy output to the energy input. The efficiency is always expressed in percentage, therefore

EFFICIENCY =   energy output      100

Energy input

Maintenance of machine.

1.By oiling , greasing  use of ball bearing to reduce friction.

2.By regular removal of dirt from the machine

3.Checking of engine oil regularly.

4.Checking all machine to detect any fault.

See also:

Ethnical Issues in Science and Development





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