Resources from living things

The source of resources from living things comes from plants and animals. The resources from plant sources include cash crops and food crops, dyes, and drugs while resources from animals include hide and skin, and dairy products. Plants’ resources are grown in the garden and farms for food, commercial purposes, and aesthetic values. Resources from plants are grouped into four major groups; cash crops, food crops, dye/textile and drug/medicinal crops.

Cash crops

There are crops grown mainly for money making. They are produced in large quantities for use within the country and for export. Cash crops include wood crops such as iroko, mahogany, and ebony; Fibre crops e.g. cotton; oil crops e.g. groundnut, palm oil, other  crops include  rice, sugar cane, tobacco e.t.c

These crops also provide foreign exchange for the country.

Food Crops

These are plant resources that serve as sources of food. These are vegetables e.g. pumpkin, lettuce and bitter leaves; root tuber e.g. yam and cassava; Fruits e.g. guava, mango and orange; Legumes e.g. beans, melon; Grains e.g. rice, maize, millet; Underground crops e.g. carrot, onion; oil plant e.g. groundnut, palm oil, olive; Food crops provides mainly vitamins, carbohydrate, protein, oil and other nutrients which the body needs for growth and development.


Dyes are liquid substances of plant extracts that are used to change the colour of clothing materials, hair and houses.

They are extracted naturally from flowers and leaves of plants. Crops for textiles are used for making clothes by textile industries. Textile crops are cotton while fibres plant, flax guinea-hemp, sisal and jute are used in rope production. The leaves and fronds of palm trees provide materials for making hats, bags, and baskets.

Drug/Medicinal crop

Drugs are chemical substances of plant extract used as medicine to prevent or cure various health problems and diseases. Drugs are capable of altering behaviours when they are abused . Drugs are resources from the stem, roots and leaves of plants. For example Cinchoma species, garlic species e.t.c

Resources from animals

Animal resources are very important for human beings since they provide food for growth and development such resources include hide, milk, feathers and the face of livestock.


Hide and skin are derived from the skin of large animals such as camels, buffalo, cattle etc. Hide can be sold, bought or used in leather industries for the production of shoes, bags,purses, belts and garment. The skin of  small animals such as goat and rabbit are edible.


There are mainly birds and mammals that are reared by farmers either for consumption or for money making. For example, such animals are goats, sheep, cows, pigs, and poultry birds.

1. These animals provide meat, milk, etc.

2. The feathers of poultry birds e.g. chickens, and turkeys are used for decoration.

3. The droppings from livestock are used as manure in farms and gardens.

4. The feathers can  be used to make a pillowcase


This is a place on a farm where milk is kept. Dairy is got from animal resources such as cows, horses camel etc. Milk is rich in protein and is a major ingredient in the production of cheese, butter and yoghurt for human consumption and export.


1. Which of the following is not livestock?  A. goat  B. lion  C. Sheep    D. pig

2. The major animal resources used in the leather industries are   A. hide and skin  B. skin and legs  C. hide and mat  D. camel and skin

3. Dairy products are major ingredients for the production of  A. yam, cotton and butter  B. cassava, timber and cheese  C. yoghurt, butter and rice   D. butter, cheese and yoghurt

4. Which of the following is not a product of living things?  A. beans   B. stone   C. melon  D. meat

5. Which of the following is not a cash crop?  A. Iroko tree  B. mahogany  C. vegetables  D. oil palm

6 a. State three uses of animals

b. State four major groups of plant resources

7. Check your texts book for more questions

See also



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