Literature In English (All Classes) SS 1 Literature in English (1st, 2nd & 3rd term)


What is Friction?

This is the general term for invented stories, now usually applied to novels, short stories, novellus, romances, fabled and other narrative works in prose, even though most plays and narrative poems are also fictional.

Example of Friction

  1. Fable:Fable is a brief tale in verse or prose that conveys a moral lesson, usually by going human speech and manners to animals and inanimate things e.g George or well’s Animal Farm (1945), Thurber Fable of our Time (1940).
  2. Allegory:Allegory is a story or visual image with a second district meaning, partially hidden behind its literal or The Pigrim’s Progress (1678) visible meaning. e.g John Bunjam

Note that the principal technique of allegory is Personification, whereby abstract qualities are given human shape as in public status of liberty or Justice.

  1. Parables:Parables is a brief tale intended to be understood as an allegory illustrating some lesson or moral. Remember that Jesus spoke or gave out 40 parables. This has a listing influence upon the writer tradition of didactic allegory g. John Steinbeck’s The Pearl (1948)
  2. Romance:Is a fictional story in verse or prose that related improbable adventures of idealizer characters in some remote or enchanted setting; or more generally a tenvrey in fiction opposite to that of realism e.g. Edmund spenser’sThe FacrieQueene (1590-6) and Sir Philip Sivney’s prose romance Arcavia (1590).
  3. Folktales: A story passed on by word of mouth rather than by writing, and thus party modified by successive re-telling before being written down or recorded.
  4. Novella: A fictional tale in prose, intermediate in length and complexity between a short story and a novel, and usually concentrating on a single event or chain of events, with a surprising turning point. e.g Joseph Conraw’sHeart of Darkness (1902)
  5. Short Story:A frictional prose tale no specified length, but too short to be published as a volume, on its own as novellas sometimes and novels usually are a Short Story will normally concentrate on a single event with only one or two characters, more economically than a novel’s sustained exploration of Social background short stories flourished in the magazines of 19th and early 20th centuries especially in U.S.A.
  6. Novel: Is nearly always an extended fictional prose narrative although some novels are very short, some are non-fictional, some have been written in verse, and some do not even tell a story. Novel is the most important literary genie of the modern Age. e.g. William Gowing.


What is Non-Friction?

Non-Fiction is the branch of literature comprising works of narrative prose dealing with or offering opinions or conjectures upon facts and reality, including biography, history, essays, autobiography, criticism, travel

Examples of Non-Friction

  1. Biography:A written account of another persons life e.g. The biography of Byron by Marchland
  2. Autobiography:A history of a person’s life written or told by that person e.g adventures, bio, diary, journal, letters, experience, memoir, reminiscences, self-portrangal confession.
  3. Essay:This is a story written composition in prose that discusses a subject or proposes an argument without claiming to be a complete or through exposition e.gFracisBacon,s Essays (1597) Began the tradition of essay in English, D.H. Lawrence
  4. Criticism:Is the reasoned discussion of literary works, an activity which may include some of all the following procedures, in varying proportions: the detene of literature against moralists and censors, classification of a work according to it genie, interpretation of its meaning, analysis of its structures and style, judgment of its worth by comparison with other works, estimation of its likely effect on readers, and the establishment of general principles by which literary works (individually, in category, or as a whole) can be evaluated and understood

Online Work

  1. What is Non-Friction
  2. Write short note(s) on the 6 examples of Friction


See also



Exprimer ses gouts et ses preferences

Etre capable de dire ce que l’on fait habituellement

Parler de son environment immediate

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