Agricultural Science (Primary Classes) Agricultural Science (All Classes)

Livestock Management

Procedure for raising cattle

There are many steps involved in raising farm animals, right from when they are young, till when they are old or mature and are ready for marketing. These steps can be generally grouped into housing, feeding, health care and handling for marketing.


Procedure for raising cattle

Cattle are large farm animals with or without (big) horns which are reared for milk and meat. They are mostly found in the northern part of the country. They are raised using the following procedure:



Cattle require little housing facilities. They are kept mostly in the open field to graze and rest under the shade of trees. Rare move them from one place to another in search of pasture. This is known as the nomadic system of cattle rearing .Milking and nursing cows require some form of housing or shelter. The house should be well ventilated and have sufficient space for the milkier and the young ones.



Cattle feed more on grasses and legumes in the pastures. Rarer usually move them around the fields to graze and drink from streams, lakes or troughs.



Procedure for rearing sheep and goats

Sheep and goats are found in every part of the country, although they are more in the north. They are raised through the following procedure:



Sheep and goats do not require expensive houses or pens. The houses should be low and have low walls for protection from cold at night. The roof of the pens may be of iron sheets or grass. Grass houses are better because they are cooler in the hot season.


Sheep and goats enjoy free movement, and they perform better when left unrestricted. In the northern part of the country, sheep and goats are allowed to run with cattle in the pasture. In the west, they are allowed to roam freely and rest outside at night. In the east, they are confined in the pens or within the compound where they are fed with grass fodder.


  1. Herding:

This is also called extensive system of feeding. In this system, the animals are allowed to feed freely on a vast area of land. This system is good because it enables the animals to pick up food of their choice and at the same time run around and exercise themselves.


  1. Semi-stall feeding:

In this system, the animals are kept in an enclosure. Movement is, therefore, restricted. A stall or house is built and racks provided for placing feed, grass or kitchen waste for the animals. Drinking water is also provided. If the enclosure has grass already, the animals are allowed to feed on it. This is also called semi intensive method.


  1. Tether:

This is a system of keeping sheep and goats tied to a stake with a rope or tether. The animals are almost not free to move, and whatever movement they make depends on the length of the rope. The animals may be taken out to open pastures and tied to shrubs while they feed on available grass.


Procedure for rearing pigs

Pigs are kept mainly for pork, bacon and lard.



Pigs require cheap and simple houses or stays. The houses may be of metal roofs or thatch. It should be well ventilated with low walls and doors. The floor should be of rough concrete. Feed and water troughs should also be of concrete. A wallowing bay or facility should be provided in one corner of the pen.



Pigs eat almost everything eaten by man. In the villages, they are allowed to roam about in search of food. Pigs reared in pens are fed with concentrates and vegetable matter.



  1. Cleaning animal environment
  2. Animal inspection
  3. Food hygiene
  4. Clean water


Strategies & Activities:

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.


Assessment & Evaluation:

  1. Mention the requirement for livestock management
  2. State how to care for farm animals



  1. Explain housing and feeding in livestock management
  2. List 3 ways one can care for farm animals


See also

Livestock production

Raise School Farm


Pest and diseases


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