Physical And Health Education (Primary Classes) Physical And Health Education (P.H.E)

Martial Art

Martial art: Karate

History, importance

Rules and regulations of karate

Taekwondo history, importance

Rules and regulation

Official and their duties,

Skills of taekwondo.



Historical background Karate was invented in Okinwate in China. It was later developed to meet global acceptance. It was introduced to Nigeria through the armed forces. It was later introduced to institutions of higher learning as an extracurricular activity. It is now popular and is developing rapidly in Nigeria. This has led to the formation of the Nigeria Karate Federation.

Importance or benefits of karate

  1. It helps in building stamina.
  2. It teaches endurance.
  3. It develops one’s flexibility and agility.
  4. It helps physical and mental development.
  5. It promotes discipline.
  6. It is useful for self-defence.
  7. It promotes physical fitness.
  8. It provides a means of livelihood for the trainers, players, sponsors and officials.
  9. It builds self-confidence.
  10. It promotes self-reliance.

Rules of karate

  1. No weapon is allowed in karate.
  2. Nails should be trimmed before contests.
  3. Knockouts can be awarded.
  4. Points are awarded according to hits and fall down or take down.
  5. Hitting below the belt is not permitted.
  6. There should be no dipping of fingers into the opponent’s eyes.
  7. Head butting is not allowed in karate.
  8. The referee’s instructions must be obeyed.


Basic skills of karate

  1. Striking
  2. Throwing/Take down
  3. Manipulation
  4. Choking
  5. Ground fighting



Historical background

Taekwondo, in Korean language, means the art of using both the legs and the fists to kick and punch an opponent for attack and self-defence. It was originated in Korea by a Korean army officer, General Choi Hong Hi in 1966. Taekwondo was introduced to Nigeria in 1975. The Federal Government employed two Koreans, Jhoo Rae Pak and Moo Cheun Kim as instructors.

The Nigeria Taekwondo Federation was formed in 1986. To further enhance the development of taekwondo in Nigeria, it was introduced into the school curriculum.

Importance or benefits of taekwondo

  1. It builds strength and stamina.
  2. It develops self-defense skills.
  3. It promotes physical fitness.
  4. It promotes social interaction.
  5. It builds self-confidence and self-reliance.
  6. It keeps the youth busy and curbs youth restiveness.
  7. It promotes character and moral training.
  8. It creates a means of livelihood for coaches and trainers.

Rules and regulations

  1. Every taekwondoist should put on the recommended outfit with its right type of belt.
  2. The decision of the referee is final.
  3. The playing arena should be 10 metres square (10 m by 10 m).
  4. Protective equipment should be put on during competitions.
  5. A contest shall last for three rounds.
  6. There should be one minute rest in-between the rounds (after each round).


Basic skills and techniques of taekwondo

The stance

This is the correct way of positioning the body in readiness to kick, punch or attack.

Types of stance

  1. Cat stance
  2. Frog stance
  3. Ready stance
  4. Horse-riding stance

The kicks

These are the effective use of the legs to kick the opponent’s trunk, head and sides.

Types of kick

  1. Jump spin kicks
  2. Jump kick
  3. Multi-rotational kick
  4. Side kick
  5. Spin kick

The punches

These are the use of the knuckles, palms and sword-hand to hit an opponent.

Types of punch

  1. Sword-hand technique
  2. Open hand technique
  3. Arrow head technique
  4. Door knock technique
  5. Knuckle hit technique


This is quick body reaction to escape an attacking punch or kick.


This involves the use of the hands and legs to create a blockage against offensive action.


Strategies & Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher endeavors to explain all the points to the pupils thoroughly.

Step 4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions.

Step 5: Teacher evaluates the pupils.


Assessment & Evaluation

  1. Narrate briefly the history of karate in Nigeria.
  2. Mention four benefits of karate.
  3. List five basic rules of karate.
  4. Mention two skills of karate.
  5. Give the brief history of taekwondo in Nigeria.
  6. List four benefits of taekwondo.
  7. Write five rules of taekwondo.
  8. List two skills of taekwondo


See also

Computer Games


Gymnastic: Stunts

Physical Fitness


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