Meat is the muscle derived from animals after slaughtering them. Meat is made of bundles of muscles fibres. Each separate fibre contains water, protein, numerous salts and extractives. The fibres are joined together and connected by to the bones of the animals by connective tissues and are connected to bones by tendons.
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White meat has a lower texture, with a less amount of fat and connective tissues e.g. veal, rabbit, chicken e.t.c. Red meat is the meat that contains more fat and connective tissues, it is found in pork, beef, lamb e.t.c. and has more flavour. Lean meat is the part of the meat that contains little fat but having no superfluous fat
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MEAT
- Proteins: The major nutrient found in meat is protein. The protein found in meat is of high quality because it is rich in all the essential amino acids in the proportions required and can readily be absorbed and used by the body.
- Vitamins: Meat is also a valuable source of B-complex vitamins e.g. riboflavin, nicotic acid and thiamine. The fatty meat like pork is also rich in Vitamins A and D.
- Minerals Element: meat is rich in mineral elements little sulphur, calcium and phosphorus.
- Fat: this is embedded in the connective tissues between the fibres. Meat such as pork, ham and bacon has much higher fat value and consequently have lower protein than lean meat
- Water: the percentage of water varies according to the type of meat, but all contains some water.
TYPES OF MEAT FROM ANIMALS
Beef from cow
Mutton from sheep
Lamb from a young sheep
Veal from calf
Game from bush animals like rabbits, antelope, deer, birds e.t.c.
Pork, ham, bacon, from pig
Lard: pure white fat from pig.
DIFFERENT CUTS OF MEAT (from cow)
- Rib Roast
- Wing-end sirloin
- Sirloin or T-Bone Steak
- Diamond Bone Steak
- Rump Steak
- Housekeeper’s Cut (b) Shoulder’s Ring
- Shin Beef
- Ox Tongue
- Leg Beef.
METHODS OF COOKING MEAT
There are many methods of cooking meat. The method chosen will however depend on two factors (i) the type of cut (ii) the objective of the cooking and subsequent utilization of the meat. The various methods of cooking meat are:
|Roasting||Ribs, Wing-end of sirloin, Sirloin, Diamond Bone, House keeper’s cut
|Frying||Neck, Chuck, Sirloin, Diamond Bone, Lap, Brisket, Shoulder’s Ring, Rump, Shin Beef, Round
|Braising||Round steak, Chuck, Housekeeper’s cut|
|Boiling||Lap, Aitch-bone, Ox tongue, Round, Button-end|
|Steaming||Round, Shin Beef, Housekeeper’s cut, Shoulder Rings|
MEANING OF OFFALS
Offals is the name given to the edible part of the internal organs of animals. They include: liver, kidney, tripe, sweetbread, tongue, brain, lungs e.t.c. they provide good quality protein and are also good sources of mineral elements and vitamins. Offals are very perishable and should therefore be cooked as quick as possible if no refrigerator is available. They also require thorough cleaning before cooking. They should be fresh when purchased.
- State 5 types of meat and their origin.
- Describe the nutritive value of meat.
Draw and label a cow.