METHODS OF STORING ROOTS AND TUBERS
- BARNS: This method is used for storage for the yams. This involves the use of a small hut, built near the compound house or on the farm inside which yams are arranged on shelves. The yams are then protected from the ray of the sun by covering the structure with banana and plantain leaves. Stored in the barns, allows for good ventilation at the stored yams while sprout can be easily observed and removed before they cause any serious physiological damage to the stored commodity.
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- PIT STORAGE: Yam can also be stored in underground pits in which large open trenches are dug on the farm which are lined with plantain or banana leaves before the yams to be stored, are arranged inside the trenches. The storage is then covered with leaves and the chick’s layer of the soil which will rhyme with the ground. Underground storage is a useful method for storage in temperature areas for the protection of the yams from very cold weather. Storage in underground pits is relatively cheap and simple to use. The limitation of this method are that this yam are susceptible to spoilage by soil micro flora, pest and rodents, sprouting and accumulation of heat all which result in physiological and structural degradation of the flesh tissue.
- ON FOOT: Cassava- the storage is rarely practiced because its storage life is very short usually not more, than 24 to 36 hours due to relatively high moisture content and enzymes activities compared to yam. On the foot is the common method for storing cassava left on the plant in the farm un- harvested until they are needed. The method is easy cheap and simple to use, but lead to wastage of farm land since such farms cannot normally be put to effective use while the cassava remain in the farm. A lot of physiology and microbiological deterioration will occur leading to losses and wastages.
MODERN METHOD OF STORING YAMS & TUBERS
Some of the modern methods for storing tubers include the use of anti- sprouting chemicals which prevent tubers from germinating and ionizing radiation. Examples of some anti sprouting chemical are maleic hydrazide tertreachlointrobenzene and naphthalene acetic acid etc.
STORAGE OF LEGUMES, FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
LEGUMES: Like cereal, legumes are stored after drying them to very low moisture content. They are usually stored in jute bags which are then arranged in dry airy stores. The bags can be sprayed with insecticide and fungicides. The store should be rat proof.
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: Fruits and vegetables can be stored by the following:-
- Controlled atmosphere storage.
- Reduces temperature.
- Dehydration (drying).
HOME STORAGE OF FOOD STUFF
- CEREALS: – Are stored in tight containers and dry peppers are usually added to the cereals before covering. The peppers act as a fumigant and therefore prevent weevils from attacking the cereals.
- LEGUMES: – Legume are stored in the same way as cereals in the home, they can also be stored in jute bags and kept on a raised plat form to prevent damage and attacks by rats.
- FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: – At home they can be stored by syruping or salting. In this method, the fruit or vegetable is first washed and then blanched and kept in sugar or salt solution. In the case of fruits, they peeled, washed and shredded before preserving in syrup or brine. Oranges can be stored by the following;
- Store in baskets in an open airy place.
- Storing in the lowest (bottom) compartment of the refrigerator.
- Putting them on trays in an open airy- space.
- FISH, POULTRY AND MEAT: – These can be stored in the homes in the following ways:
- Freezing: Here the fish, poultry or meat is first washed, trimmed and cut and packaged in polythene bags and tied properly before putting in the freezer.
- Drying: This method is usually applied to fish and meat. The fish or meal is properly trimmed and cut into desired sizes. They are then salted before ready in the sun to dry.
- Smoking: The method similar to drying. The fish or meat is first washed and cut into desired sizes. It is then salted before spreading on a wire gauze place over a fire or heat charcoal. The heat generated penetrates the fish or meat produced also contains some aldehydes and phenols which further imparts special flavour to the fish or meat.
- Refrigerating: – In some cases the fish or meat are put in wire cages and hung over the fire place. The heat produced during cooking dries the fish or meat. Such fish or meat can be in the wire cages for a considerable length of time without spoiling.
Differentiate between storage and preservation of food
- Outline the factors that influence choice of storage methods
- List out the ways by which fish, poultry and meat and can be stored in the home
- Students are to get their materials and ingredients ready for practicals on preservation of yams and tubers.