Social Studies (Primary Classes) Social Studies


Meaning of pollution

Pollution is anything that makes our water, land, air and environment dirty and unsafe for human use. For example, a heap of rubbish is a type of pollution. A dead animal lying on the road causes pollution. Polythene bags, orange peels and remnants of food items pollute the surroundings.

Types of pollution common in our locality

1 Water pollution:

Water pollution takes place when dirty materials are dumped into streams, ponds, lakes, rivers and other bodies of water. Some people urinate and excrete into streams. This makes water from the streams unfit for drinking. Wells which are not covered can have various germs getting into them, thus making them dangerous.

Some people spray chemicals into water while fishing. This pollutes the water and kills the fish. Fish caught by this method are unfit for eating.

By-products or waste from factories sometimes flow into streams and rivers and cause water pollution.


2 Air pollution

Air pollution takes place when coal, kerosene, petrol and engine oil burn.

When they are burning, they produce smoke. The smoke makes the air dirty and dangerous. Smoke from factories also pollutes the air.


3 Noises

Noise (perhaps in the form of constant loud music or rowdiness) is a kind of pollution. It disturbs the mind and prevents people from sleeping, resting or reasoning properly.


Effects of pollution

Water pollution has the following effects:

1 It makes the water dirty and unfit for drinking.

2 It causes diseases like dysentery, typhoid fever and cholera.

Air pollution has the following effects:

1 It makes the air dirty and bad for breathing into the body.

2 It causes sneezing, blood poisoning, cough, lung diseases and cold.

Noise, as pollution, has the following effects:

1 Noise disturbs people’s minds and prevents them from reasoning properly and thinking creatively.

2 Noise can also cause headaches and sleeplessness.


Control of pollution

1 Factories should dump their waste at the proper places.

2 Factories and industries should be built or located far away from where people live.

3 Landlords should provide modern toilet facilities in their houses.

4 Everyone should ensure that the environment is clean always. We can do this through regular sweeping, cleaning of gutters and cutting of grasses in our area.

5 Those living in towns and cities should dump their refuse only at refuse dumps approved by the local government.

6 The government should ensure that refuse at dump sites is removed regularly.

This will prevent the refuse from becoming so much as to cause pollution.

7 The government should discourage owners of smoky cars from plying the roads.

8 People should live in quiet areas. Again people in the neighbourhood could take action against anyone who is in the habit of producing noise in the environment.


Strategies & Activities

Step 1: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils’ questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils


Assessment & Evaluation

1 Define pollution.

2 Mention at least three types of pollution that are common in your locality.

3 Mention at least one effect of each of the types.

4 Write at least five ways of controlling pollution and its effects.



A Choose the best answers for the following questions.

1 Anything that makes our environment dirty and unsafe for human use is known as _____________.

A contamination B pollination C pollution

2 A heap of rubbish in our environment is _____________.

A A sign of healthy environment B a form of pollution

C a way of life

3 Pollution occurs _____________.

A on land only B in the air only C everywhere

4 The dumping of dirty materials into streams, ponds, lakes and other bodies of water is called _____________.

A pond pollution B water pollution C stream pollution

5 We can pollute rivers by _____________.

A  using chemicals to kill fish B fetching water with bucket

C putting dam into it

6 One way of causing air pollution is _____________.

A urinating into streams B closing all the windows in our rooms

C burning firewood

7 Smoke from factories can cause __________________ pollution.

A air B water C noise

8 Sound of generators in our compound can cause _____________ pollution.

A air B water C noise

9 The type of pollution caused by people who play loud music is _____________ pollution.

A air B water C noise


See also

Prevention of drug abuse

Characteristics of drug abusers

Effect of drug abuse


Types of communication

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