Pollution is a situation in which something is dangerously dirty and no longer safe for use.


  1. Air pollution
  2. Water pollution
  3. Land pollution
  4. Noise pollution



Air pollution is when the air is no longer pure for people to breathe. This can be due to smoke from vehicles and factories, as well as harmful chemicals in the air. In land pollution, the ground is no longer safe for farming and other purposes.


When land is polluted, it may be unsafe to dig a well there, because the water maybe polluted. This often happens where things, such as crude oil, petrol and some chemicals spill on the ground. Such soil is no longer good for farming and other user


Ways by which air and land are polluted

Pollution involves conditions which are harmful to man, animals and plants. Air is polluted in the following ways:

1 Burning of coal or oil, which gives off smoke, pollutes the air. Also, a lot of smoke produced from factories pollutes the air.

2 Car and buses, which run on diesel and petrol, give off bad gases which pollute the air.

3 Dust particles pollute the air, especially in the dry season. Harmattan winds carry a lot of dust in the dry season.

4 When too much insecticide is sprayed in a room, the air is polluted.

5 Smell from waste dumped on the land by factories pollutes the air.

6 Smell from household refuse also pollutes the air.


Land can be polluted in the following ways:

1 When petroleum from damaged pipes leaks onto the land and rivers, it pollutes the land and rivers. Such pollution sometimes happens in areas of Nigeria where crude oil or petroleum is found. Such land is useless for farming, and fishes can no longer live in such rivers.

2 Farmers sometimes use chemicals on the land. They also add fertilizers to the soil. All these chemicals can pollute the land.

3 In big cities, refuse dumps are found in some places, and such waste pollutes the land.

4 Farmers use insecticide to kill insects and animals which are harmful to crops. If the insecticide is too much, the land may become polluted, and no longer suitable for growing crops.

5 Some factories produce wastewater which runs into streams, and these streams are thereby polluted. Fishes are killed as a result.

6 Those that urinate and defecate (pass out feaces) in the streets pollute the land


Harmful effects of pollution

We have learnt about some of the harmful effects of pollution. These effects include the following;

1The air is no longer safe for breathing. Such air brings diseases like cough, lung disease, sneezing and blood poisoning.

2 Polluted land smells bad, and diseases like cholera, dysentery and diarrhea are common in such places.

3 Polluted land is no longer useful for growing crops.

4 Polluted water no longer contains good fish and animals.

5 Polluted water is unsafe for drinking by human beings.


Ways of preventing pollution

1 Smoking of cigarettes should not be allowed, especially in crowded places, such as buses or taxis.

2 We should provide toilets in our homes and public places for people to use.

3 Industries which produce a lot of smoke should make the smoke harmless to people.

4 Wastewater from industries must not be allowed to pass into streams.

5 We should not stay or sleep in a room which has just been sprayed with insecticide, instead, we should wait outside, until much of the smell has gone away.

6 We should always keep our surroundings clean.

7 Government must not only make laws on keeping a clean environment, it must also ensure that people and companies obey such laws.

8 Government must give people sound education about keeping the environment clean. This can be done through the radio and television


Strategies & Activities

Step: Teacher revises the previous topic.

Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.

Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.

Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.

Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils


Assessment & Evaluation

  1. Explain pollution.
  2. Name four things that can pollute the air.
  3. State four ways in which the land is polluted.
  4. Mention three harmful effects of air and land pollution.
  5. State two ways in which government can reduce or prevent pollution.
  6. List four things which individuals can do to prevent or reduce pollution.
  7. Explain the need for people to know about the environment



Choose the best answers for the following questions

1 When something is very dirty and no longer safe for use as a result of being exposed to contaminants, this is called _____________.

A evaporation

B pollution

C preservative

D premature

2 Smoke from vehicles, factory emissions can cause _____________.

A  land pollution

B air pollution

C car pollution

D noise pollution

3 _____________ can be caused by crude oil, petroleum and chemical spill on the ground.

A Air pollution

B Land pollution

C Water pollution

D Wind pollution.

4 Burning of coal or oil that produces smoke causes _____________.

A water pollution

B coal pollution

C air pollution

D noise pollution

5 _____________ carries a lot of dust in the dry season and also pollutes the air.

A  Rain

B Thunder

C Harmattan wind

D Whirlwind


See also

Causes of drug abuse





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