Speech Sounds /I/ and /I:/ contrasted

The /I:/vowel sound is long while the /I/ is short. They are contrasted using the following words.

/I:/                                                                    /I/

eat                                                                   it

beat                                                                 bit

seat                                                                  sit

heel                                                                  hill

feel                                                                  fill

seen                                                                 sin

leave                                                                live

wean                                                                win

meal                                                                 mill

least                                                                 list


Write out five more examples to contrast these two sounds.

  1. Essay Writing: Expository: Raising a Total Child


  • Who a child is (physical, intellectual, emotional, psychological, social)
  • Explain the factors that affect child development (before and after birth)
  • Maternal nutrition and care environmental factors
  • What children should be exposed to and otherwise
  • Discuss how children’s personality and attitudes are formed
  • Describe the roles of the parents in raising a child
  • Discuss the duties of the school and others.
  • Buttress explanation with examples from the society
  • Explain the effects of poor/negative child upbringing.
  • Emphasise the importance of raising a total child


Write your essay on the outlined topic above.

  1. Comprehension: Identifying sentence types in a passage
  2. Simple sentence – one clause (M1)
  3. Complex sentence – one main clause with two or more subordinate clauses (M1, S1 or more)
  4. Compound sentence – two main clauses joined by a conjunction (M2)
  5. Multiple sentences – three or more main clauses (M3 or more)
  6. Compound – complex sentence – two or more main clauses (M2 or moreS1 or more)

On page 214 of your Effective English book 2, write out two examples of each type of sentence.


Do the exercise above.

  1. Structure: Adverbs


An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective and/or another adverb. It could answer the questions of when, where, why, how, to what, extent, how often or under what condition an action has taken place. Adverbs are formed by adding ‘-ly’ to adjectives, therefore most words with ‘-ly’ ending are adverbs. Some adverbs are however not easily recognised because they could be adjectives in some context

Functions of Adverbs

  1. Adverbs modifying verbs.

(i) Maureen runs fast                         (ii) Tosin walks slowly

The underlined adverbs above are modifying their preceding verbs i.e. ‘runs’ in (i) and ‘walks’ in (ii) ……

  1. Adverb modifying adjectives.

(i) Taiwo is very tall.               (ii) Sunny became quite uncomfortable

The underlined adverbs above are modifying adjectives following them i.e. tall in (i) and ‘uncomfortable’ in (ii)

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  1. Adverb modifying another adverb.

(i) Maureen runs extremely fast         (ii) Tosin walks too slowly.

The underline adverbs above are modifying the adjectives following them i.e. ‘fast’ in (i) and ‘slowly’ in (ii).

We have different kinds of adverbs depending on the type of question they answer.

How?              –                       Adverb of manner

When?             –                       Adverb of time

Why?               –                       Adverb of reason

Where?            –                       Adverb of place

How often?     –                       Adverb of frequency

To what extent? –                    Adverb of degree

Under what conditions? –         Adverb of condition


Write two sentences expressing each of the functions of adverbs.


  1. Define adverb and give two examples to explain their functions.
  2. Explain two types of sentence structures with three examples for each.



Choose the appropriate option for each sentence.

  1. He had scarcely arrived from Abuja _________ he travelled again. (than, as, when)
  2. She had barely come in __________ her baby stopped crying. (as, than, when)
  3. She failed because the examination was ____________ difficult for her (too, very, so)
  4. He knows me ___________ well to suspect my intentions (that, much, very, too)
  5. The table is __________ wide to go through the door. (very, so, too, quite).
  6. He’ll marry _________ next year. (sometimes, sometime)
  7. I would _________ like to come to your party but I have a more important engagement today. (rather much, very much, quite much, too much)
  8. He never got it right, ___________ hard he tried. (whenever, whoever, however)

See also.

Vocabulary Development: Words Associated with Films and TV

Structure: Adjectival Clause

Essay Writing: Story Writing

Speech Work: Stress Placement on Two or More Syllable Words

Grammar: Rules of Concord

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