Vowel sounds are produced when the airstream flows from the lungs to the mouth without obstruction. There are fourteen-four sounds segments in English, which comprises of twenty (20) vowels and twenty four (24) consonants. Consonant sounds are produced with obstruction or interrupt flow of air from the lungs.
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CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOWEL
The vowels in English are classified into two main groups. Pure vowel (monophthongs) and diphthong. The pure vowels are sub-divided or classified into short and long vowels.
The obstruction that occurred in the production of consonant sound could be “partial” or “total”. For example, when consonant /P/ is produced, the flow of the air is obstructed by the lips. The obstruction here is called a total obstruction because the flow of air is completely obstructed, unlike /f/ it is partial.
CLASSIFICATION OF CONSONANT SOUND
Manner of State of Place of
Articulation Glosses Articulation
STOP PLOSIVE Voiceless Voiced
P b Bilabial
t d alveolar
k g velar
FRICATIVE f v Labio-dental
O 2 Dental
S z Alveolar
S 3 Palato – Alveolar
AFFRICATIVE tg dz Palato Alveolar
LATERAL l Alveolar
LIQUID r Alveolar
SEMI VOWEL w Bilabial
NASAL m Bilabial