A weed is any plant that grows in a place where it is not (expected to grow) wanted.
Table of Contents
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF WEEDS
- They compete with crops for space.
- Weeds compete with crops for sunlight.
- Weeds compete with crops for nutrient.
- Weeds habour crop pests and pathogens
- Weeds compete with crop for soil moisture.
- It leads to loss in crop yields.
- Weeds compete with crop for soil oxygen.
- They reduce the quality of crops.
- They reduce the income of farmers.
- They cause reduction in the taste of some grasses.
- Some weeds are toxic to farm animals.
BENEFITS OF WEEDS TO FARMERS
- Weeds helps in checking soil erosion.
- Some weeds are useful as food for humans.
- Some weeds serve as food for animals.
- Certain weeds have medicinal values.
- They can be used as green manure.
- Some are used for making roots, mats and baskets.
- Weeds are used for mulching.
- Weeds are used for compost making.
- What are weeds?
- List five beneficial effects of weeds
CHARACTERISTICS AND GROWTH HABIT OF WEEDS
- Production of large quantity of seeds
- Some weeds reduced by seeds
- Some weeds reduced by vegetative propagation
- Growth of large leaves within a short time
- Weeds growth is favoured during rainy season
- Most weeds are wind pollinated.
- Production of large quantity of pollen grains
DISPERSAL OF WEED SEEDS AND FRUITS
Most seeds and fruits of weeds are generally dispersed by wind and animals. The mode of dispersal are;
- Dispersal of seeds by wind
Such weeds have feathery, winged or powdery seeds e.g. Tridax (pwd weed), goats weed, guinea grass, elephant grass and many other species of grasses.
- Dispersal of seeds by Animal
Animal dispersed weeds usually have sticky, hooked, edible or colourful fruits or seeds. The sticky and hooked types of fruits and seeds adhere to the coats of grazing animals and are carried from one place to another. Examples of such animals are; rabbits, rats squirrels, antelope and man. Pig weed and commelina spp are example of such weed.
- Dispersal of seeds by water
Water dispered weeds have water proof cuticles, air spaces within the fruit and a light weight
- Dispersal of seeds by explosive mechanism
Few plants and all leguminouns weeds are dispersed by explosive mechanism eg water leaf, centro, pueraria, calapo and mucuna.
COMMON WEEDS FOUND ON FARMS
|S/N||COMMON NAME||BOTANICAL NAME|
|1.||Guinea grass||Panicum maximum|
|2.||Bahama grass||Cynodon dactylon|
|3.||Carpet grass||Axonopus compressus|
|4.||Cogon grass||Imperata cylindrica|
|5.||Spear grass||Heteropogon contortus|
|6.||Wild sun flower||Aspilia Africana|
|8.||Water leaf||Talinum triangulare|
|9.||Wire/sida weed||Sida acuta|
|10.||Goat weed||Ageratum conyzoides|
|11.||Elephant grass||Pennisetum purpureum|
|12.||Giant star grass||Cynodon plectostachyum|
|13.||Pig weed||Amaranthus spinosus|
|19.||Northern gamba||Andropogon gayanus|
|20.||Southern gamba||Andropogon tectorum|
- List and explain different weed dispersal method
- List five weeds and their botanical names
GENERAL CONTROL OF WEEDS
- Mechanical control: involves the use of machines such as bulldozer, tree puller, plough etc. to get rid of unwanted plants.
- Physical or manual control: This can be done in different ways which includes hand pulling, hoeing, slashing with cutlass etc.
- Biological Control: This involves the introduction of some insects and herbivorous animals to farmland to eat up the leaves of the weed and even the entire plant in some cases.
- Cultural control: This involves the use of farming system to get rid of wed. It can be achieved by practice of crop rotation and the growing of cover crops to suppress the growth of the weeds on the farm. Other types of cultural weed control methods are: flooding, bush burning, mulching
- Chemical Control: This involves the use of chemical solution called herbicides to control weeds. Some herbicides are selective while some are non-selective or contact herbicide
REASONS WHY WEEDS ARE DIFFICULT TO CONTROL
- They have vigorous growth; they are aggressive and persistent.
- Weeds have high reproductive capacity
- Their seeds have long period of viability
- Weeds have efficient dispersal method
- They have efficient means of propagation
- They have long period of dormancy
- They produce many seeds
- They have short life cycle
- What are weeds?
- Discuss the methods of weed dispersal.
- List five economic importance of weeds
- List five common weeds and state their botanical names
- Discuss the four methods of weed control.
- Give three reasons why weeds are difficult to eradicate.
- A cowpea growing in a maize plot is a ________ A. plant B. weed C. crop D. animal.
- Seed of centro, calapo are usually dispersed by _____ A. wind B. water C. explosive mechanism D. animals
- Which of the following is not a cultural weed control methods A. flooding B. burning
- mulching D. hoeing
- Which of the following is not a physical method of weed control? A. hand pulling
- mulching C. hoeing D. slashing
- Weeds have a _____ lifecycle A. long B. medium C. short D. average.
- What are weeds
- Describe four methods of weed control.
- a. List four benefits of weeds to farmers
- State four reasons why weeds are difficult to control