Agricultural Marketing | Co-operative Societies, Producers, Middlemen, Wholesalers,

Agricultural marketing encompasses all the essential activities that facilitate the movement of farm produce from producers to the final consumers. It’s a pivotal process that bridges the gap between production and consumption, culminating in the availability of goods for consumers.

Importance/Significance of Agricultural Marketing

  1. Year-Round Availability: Agricultural marketing ensures a consistent supply of products throughout the year, contributing to food security.
  2. Employment Generation: This process generates employment opportunities for various individuals such as drivers, traders, and retailers, fostering economic growth.
  3. Supply and Demand Balancing: By identifying regions with surplus production and regions with shortages, agricultural marketing helps balance supply and demand.
  4. Foreign Exchange Earnings: Through the exportation of agricultural products, a nation can earn foreign exchange, bolstering its economic strength.
  5. Price Determination: Agricultural marketing influences price determination, affecting both producers and consumers.
  6. Consumer Preferences: By connecting producers with consumer preferences, marketing aids in tailoring products to meet the desires of the market.
  7. Research and Innovation: Marketing initiates research into consumer preferences, spurring product development and innovation.
  8. Infrastructure Development: Successful marketing efforts contribute to the development of essential infrastructure like roads, electricity, and water supply.


Farm product marketing channels depict the various interconnected pathways through which agricultural goods traverse before reaching consumers. These channels comprise:

  1. Producers
  2. Marketing Boards
  3. Local Markets
  4. Middlemen
  5. Cooperative Societies
  6. Commissioned Agents
  7. Exporters
  8. Processors


The stages involved in marketing agricultural produce encompass the following:

  1. On-Farm Processing: Basic processing of products at the farm level.
  2. Grading and Sorting: Categorizing products based on quality, size, or other criteria.
  3. Packaging: Properly packaging products for transportation and display.
  4. Storage/Warehousing: Safe storage of goods to prevent spoilage.
  5. Transportation: Efficient transportation to move products from farms to markets.
  6. Advertisement: Promoting products through advertising to attract consumers.
  7. Merchandizing: Strategically presenting products to entice buyers.
  8. Assemblage: Gathering and consolidating products for distribution.


Key functions of a marketer in achieving marketing objectives include:

  1. Researching: Conduct research to understand market trends and consumer preferences.
  2. Buying: Procuring agricultural products from producers for further distribution.
  3. Product Development and Management: Enhancing products and managing their lifecycle.
  4. Production: Overseeing the production process to meet market demand.
  5. Promotion: Marketing and advertising to create product awareness.
  6. Standardization and Grading: Establishing quality standards and grading systems.
  7. Pricing: Determining appropriate pricing based on market factors.
  8. Distribution: Efficiently distributing products to target markets.
  9. Risk Bearing: Managing and mitigating risks associated with marketing activities.
  10. Financing: Providing necessary financial resources for marketing endeavors.


Various entities play integral roles, either directly or indirectly, in the agricultural marketing process.

These agents encompass:

  1. Marketing/Commodity Boards:

These governmental trading agencies oversee the marketing of export or cash crops. Originally known as marketing boards, they have since evolved into commodity boards.

Advantages of Marketing/Commodity Boards:

  1. Employment for licensed buying agents.
  2. Assurance of producer prices and export crop production.
  3. Price stabilization, safeguarding farmers from fluctuations.
  4. Encouragement of export produce processing.
  5. Revenue generation through export duties and sales taxes.
  6. Contribution to social amenities and quality enhancement.
  7. Support for both export and food crop production.
  8. Occasional provision of capital to farmers.

Disadvantages of Marketing/Commodity Boards:

  1. Focus primarily on major export crops.
  2. Independent price-fixing without farmer consultation.
  3. Middlemen exploitation through low payments or downgrading.
  4. Fixed payments to farmers despite rising world prices.
  5. Government interference in board operations.

Co-operative Societies:

Voluntary organizations formed by individuals pooling resources with the aim of satisfying member needs.

Advantages of Co-operative Societies:

  1. Bulk purchase from producers.
  2. Direct dealings with producers, bypassing middlemen.
  3. Moderate prices for members and non-members.
  4. Pooling of resources for specialized needs.
  5. Shared profits based on shares or purchase volume.
  6. Voluntary membership.
  7. Provision of storage, loans, and transportation.

Disadvantages of Co-operative Societies:

  1. Risk of poor management and inefficiency.
  2. Vulnerability to financial misappropriation.
  3. Lack of encouragement for individual enterprise.


The agricultural commodity producers.

Advantages of Producers:

  1. Foundation of the agricultural market.
  2. Satisfy consumer preferences.
  3. Deliver products to consumers at reduced cost.
  4. Supply fresh produce to consumers.

Disadvantages of Producers:

  1. Producers’ co-operatives may prioritize income over consumer preferences.
  2. Hoarding for better prices.
  3. Absence of storage and transportation facilities.

Individual/Private Middlemen:

Individuals purchasing farm produce directly from the farm.

Advantages of Private Middlemen:

  1. Bridge producers with consumers.
  2. Potential for loans to producers.
  3. Blend, repackage, and assemble goods.
  4. Save producers’ marketing time.
  5. Offer storage and transport options.

Disadvantages of Private Middlemen:

  1. Inflation of commodity prices.
  2. Creation of artificial goods scarcity.
  3. Exploitation of producers and consumers.


Agents purchase produce in large quantities from producers and selling in smaller quantities to retailers.

Advantages of Wholesalers:

  1. Bulk purchasing capability.
  2. Storage facilities available.
  3. Effective transportation resources.
  4. Information conduit between retailers and producers.

Disadvantages of Wholesalers:

  1. Exploitation of producers and retailers.
  2. Artificial goods scarcity creation.
  3. Inflation of commodity prices.


Agents purchase goods from wholesalers and selling in small quantities to consumers.

Advantages of Retailers:

  1. Ensure product availability and affordability.
  2. Generate employment opportunities.
  3. Facilitate information flow between consumers and wholesalers.
  4. Extend credit to certain consumers.

Disadvantages of Retailers:

  1. Potential for creating artificial goods scarcity.
  2. Risk of losses due to theft or perishable spoilage.
  3. Possibility of inflating commodity prices.


Challenges faced in the realm of agricultural marketing include:

  1. Limited Transportation Infrastructure: Insufficient transportation systems hinder the smooth movement of goods.
  2. Small-Scale Production: Small production scales can limit market access and negotiation power.
  3. Inadequate Basic Amenities: Lack of essential facilities like water and electricity affects production and distribution.
  4. Perishability of Produce: Highly perishable goods face difficulties in reaching markets promptly.
  5. Insufficient Storage Facilities: Lack of proper storage options leads to spoilage and wastage.
  6. Inadequate Processing Infrastructure: The absence of processing facilities impacts value addition and product diversity.
  7. Financial Constraints: Farmers often lack the necessary funds for production and marketing activities.
  8. Low Product Prices: Poor pricing negatively impacts farmers’ income and motivation.
  9. Middlemen Issues: Challenges posed by intermediaries, including unfair pricing and exploitation.
  10. Difficulty in Assembling Produce: Gathering and consolidating products for distribution can be challenging.


  1. Improved Infrastructure: Developing good road networks enhances transportation efficiency.
  2. Financial Support: Providing farmers with financial assistance and access to credit promotes investment.
  3. Enhanced Storage and Processing Facilities: Constructing proper storage and processing infrastructure reduces wastage and adds value.
  4. Effective Government Policies: Formulating favourable policies can streamline marketing processes and protect farmers’ interests.
  5. Market Research Promotion: Encouraging market research assists in identifying trends and consumer preferences.

Exported Crops in Nigeria

Nigeria is a country rich in agricultural resources and produces a variety of crops that are exported to international markets. Some of the major crops that are commonly exported from Nigeria include:

  1. Oil Palm: Nigeria is one of the world’s largest producers of palm oil and palm kernel oil.
  2. Cocoa: Nigeria is known for producing high-quality cocoa beans, which are used in the production of chocolate and other cocoa-based products.
  3. Cashew Nuts: Cashew nuts are a significant export commodity, appreciated for their taste and nutritional value.
  4. Rubber: Nigeria exports natural rubber, which is used in various industries, including automotive and manufacturing.
  5. Sesame Seeds: Sesame seeds are used in culinary and oil extraction, making them a valuable export.
  6. Ginger: Nigeria produces and exports ginger, which has both culinary and medicinal applications.
  7. Hibiscus (Zobo) Flowers: Used for making herbal teas and extracts, hibiscus flowers are exported for their flavor and health benefits.
  8. Shea Butter: This natural fat is derived from the shea nut and is used in cosmetics and skincare products.
  9. Cotton: Nigeria produces cotton, which is used in the textile and apparel industry.
  10. Yam: While not a major export, yams are occasionally exported to meet the needs of the Nigerian diaspora.

Guidelines for Exporting Crops in Nigeria

Exporting crops from Nigeria involves adherence to certain guidelines and regulations to ensure the quality and safety of the products. Here are some essential steps and considerations for exporting crops from Nigeria:

  1. Quality Control: Ensure that the crops meet the required quality standards for export. This involves proper harvesting, sorting, and packaging.
  2. Document Preparation: Obtain the necessary export documents, including the Certificate of Origin, Phytosanitary Certificate, and other relevant permits.
  3. Market Research: Identify potential international markets and research their specific requirements and regulations for the crops you intend to export.
  4. Export License: Obtain an export license from the Nigerian Export Promotion Council (NEPC).
  5. Packaging and Labeling: Use appropriate packaging materials that protect the crops during transit. Labels should include essential information such as product name, weight, origin, and batch/lot numbers.
  6. Phytosanitary Certification: Obtain a Phytosanitary Certificate from the Nigerian Agricultural Quarantine Service (NAQS) to verify that the crops are free from pests and diseases.
  7. Customs Clearance: Comply with customs procedures for export, including declaring the goods and completing required forms.
  8. Transportation: Arrange for reliable transportation that maintains the quality and freshness of the crops.
  9. Quality Testing: Depending on the destination, crops might need to undergo quality testing by approved laboratories.
  10. Export Documentation: Complete all necessary paperwork accurately, including the Bill of Lading, Invoice, Packing List, and any additional requirements from the destination country.
  11. Exporter Registration: Register as an exporter with the NEPC and obtain an Exporter’s Code.
  12. Insurance: Consider obtaining export insurance to protect against potential losses during transit.
  13. Payment Terms: Establish clear payment terms with buyers, considering factors like payment methods and terms of payment.
  14. Regulations and Compliance: Stay updated with international trade regulations and compliance standards that apply to your chosen export markets.

See also:

Farm Records and Farm Accounts

Agricultural Finance | Agricultural Credit, Farm Credits, Agricultural Subsidy & Capital Market

Apiculture or Bee-Keeping | Types, Importance, Precautionary Measures & Equipment

Aquaculture or Fish Farming | Meaning, Importance, Conditions, Basic Rules & Regulations

Animal Diseases | Preventive, Control, and Curative Methods

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