CPU sometimes referred to simply as the Central Processor, but more commonly called Processor, the CPU is the brains of the computer where most calculations take place.

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer is a piece of hardware that carries out the instructions of a computer program. It performs the basic arithmetic, logical, and input/output operations of a computer system. The CPU is like the brains of the computer – every instruction, no matter how simple, has to go through the CPU. The CPU is responsible for all the processing that computer does. It consists of the (i) Main memory (ii) the Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) and (iii) control unit (CU).


(i) Main Memory: This can be liked to a reserviour that can hold large quantity of any substance. It is used to store data, information and instructions for processing. It is computer’s resident primary storage or main memory or internal memory.


(ii) Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): This section handles all arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc that computer does. It also carries out logical operations like sorting, merging, comparism between units of data. All operations involving +, *, -, %, <,>, = etc performed in this unit.

  • Control Unit (CU): This unit is the most important part of the CPU because it serves as a supervisor or controller. This unit ensures the smooth operations of all of the hardware units. It does this by
  • Fetching instructions from the memory
  • Interpreting the instructions
  • Issues command to the units responsible for the execution of the instructions.


As the human brain synchronized the function of the different parts of the body, interpreting every signal appropriately to the various parts of the human body, so is the control unit to the different parts of the computer system.



(1) Define Central Processing Unit (CPU)

(2) Mention the components of CPU

(3) Mention the function of each component

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