Localisation of industries refers to the concentration of many firms of an industry in a particular area.
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Advantages And Disadvantages Of Localisation
Localisation has both merits and limits. They are enumerated below.
- Reputation – The place where an industry is localised gains reputation and so do the products produced there. As a consequent, articles bearing the name of that location find wide markets such as Sheffield cutlery, Swiss watches Ludhiana Hosiery etc.
- Skilled Labour – Localisation escorts to specialisation in particular trades. As a consequence, labourers skilled in those trades are fascinated to that place. The localised industry is continuously fed by a regular supply of skilled labour that also attracts new firms into the industry. Further, there is local supply of skilled labour that children of the labourers accede from them. The enhancements of the watch industry in Switzerland, of the shawl industry in Kashmir etc are primarily due to this factor.
- Growth of Facilities – Focus of an industry in specified region leads to the development of specific facilities there. To cater to the needs of the industry, banks and financial institutions, open their branches whereby the firms are able to get timely credit facilities. Railways and transport concerns allow exceptional transport facilities which the firms make use of bringing materials and transporting goods. Likewise, insurance companies give insurance facilities and thus indemnify risk of fire, accidents, thefts etc.
- Subsidiary industries – Where industries are localised, subsidiary industries grow up to supply machines, tools, implements and other materials and to utilise their by-products. For instance, where the sugar industry is localised, plants to produce sugar machinery tools from molasses and for rearing poultry which utilise molasses in nosh.
- Employment Opportunities – As an effect from the above, with the localisation of an industry in a particular locality and the establishment of subsidiary industries, employment opportunities considerably increase in that region.
- Common Problems – All concerns form an association to solve their common difficulties. This connection secures various types of facilities from the government and the other agencies for expanding business establish research labs, publishes technical and trade journals and opens training centres for technical personnel. As a consequence all firms benefits.
- Economy Gains – Localisation leads to the lowering of production costs and improvement in the quality of the products when the firms benefits from the availability of skilled labour, timely credit, quality materials, research facilities, market and transport facilities etc. Also the trade gains through the standing of the place, the people gain through larger employment opportunities, the government gains through larger tax revenue and thus the economy gains on the whole.
Also localisation is not an unmixed go-ahead. It has its limitations.
- Dependence – When an industry is localised in a particular locality, it makes the economy dependant for its requirements of the products manufactured there. Such dependence is dangerous in the event of war, a misery, or a natural disaster since the supplies of the articles will be disturbed and the whole financial system will endure.
- Social Problems – Localisation of industries in a particular locality creates many social problems such as congestion, emergence of slums, accidents, strikes etc. These adversely affect the efficiency of labour and the productive ability of the industry.
- Limited Employment – Where an industry is localised, employment opportunities are limited to a particular type of labour. In the event of a slump in that industry, specialised labour fails to get surrogate employment in some other place. Once again, if such specialised labour organises itself into a powerful trade union, it can force the employers to pay higher wages which may raise the outlay of manufacture and unfavourably influence the industry.
- Diseconomies – With the way of time, the focus of industries in a meticulous place, economies of scale may give path to diseconomies. Transport restricted access emerge. There are recurrent power break downs. Financial organizations are powerless to meet the credit needs of the entire industry due to fiscal severity. As noted prior, labour asks for higher wages and better and better living conditions. All these are inclined to raise costs of production and reduce production.
- Regional Imbalance – Focus of industries in one region or locality leads to the top-sided development of the fiscal. When one industry is localised in a region it attracts more business men who establish other industries there since the accessibility of infrastructure facilities like power, transport, finance, labour etc. Thus such regions improve more whilst the other areas linger backward. Employment opportunities, the level of earnings and the standard of living amplifies at a much greater velocity in these areas relatively with other areas of the nation.
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