JSS 1 Social Studies (1st, 2nd & 3rd Term) Social Studies

Our Roles in Promoting Safety in Our Community

Safety is from the French word “sauf”. Safety is a situation which prevents any form of injury while performing some activities. It is a situation where an individual or group of individuals can carry out or perform activities without any injury. According to the dictionary, it means the state of being safe, freedom from the occurrence of risk of injury, danger or loss.

Reasons for Safety/ Needs for Safety

  1. To prevent damage of properties: Road and fire accidents can bring great damage to many properties. Through safety measures, both public and private properties can be maintained and have longer usage.
  2. To prevent loss of life: Safety measures should be put in place to prevent death of individuals while carrying out a task.
  3. To prevent avoidable accidents: When necessary safety measures are put in place, some accidents will be avoided. For instance, if necessary gadgets and personnel are available at a swimming pool, drowning will be completely eliminated.
  4. To minimize risk: Safety measures help in reducing risk in carrying out a task.
  5. To prevent temporary, or permanent disabilities: There is the need for safety to prevent accidents that will lead to loss of eyes, limbs, arms and any other parts of the body. Permanent disabilities could make an individual unproductive and almost useless to their families and society at large.

Accidents and Safety Measures At Home

Accidents at home can indeed encompass a wide range of scenarios, and safety should always be a top priority. Here’s a bit more information on each of the examples you mentioned:

1. Fire Outbreaks: Fires can occur due to various reasons, such as cooking accidents, faulty electrical appliances, or negligence. It’s crucial to have working smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in your home.

2. Pressing Iron Burns: Iron burns can happen if you accidentally touch a hot iron or mishandle it. Always unplug the iron when not in use and store it safely.

3. Hot Water Burns: Scalds from hot water can occur while cooking or using hot water for cleaning. Be cautious when handling hot liquids and ensure your water heater is set to a safe temperature.

4. Sliding in the Bathroom: Bathrooms can become slippery, and falls can happen due to wet floors or inadequate fixtures. Installing non-slip mats and handrails can help prevent accidents.

5. Falling from Staircases: Staircase falls are common household accidents. Install handrails, keep staircases well-lit, and use non-slip treads to minimize the risk of falling.

6. Knife or Razor Blade Cuts: Accidental cuts can happen while cooking, grooming, or handling sharp objects. Always use proper techniques and store sharp items safely.

Additional common home accidents include electrical shocks, poisoning (e.g., from household chemicals), choking hazards (small objects for children), and furniture-related injuries (e.g., tipping over of heavy furniture).

To prevent these accidents, it’s essential to practice safety measures, maintain a clean and organized living space, and childproof your home if you have young children. Additionally, having a first-aid kit and knowing basic first-aid procedures can be valuable in case of emergencies.

Safety Measures

1. Electrical Safety:
– Ensure that your house is properly wired by licensed professionals to prevent electrical hazards.
– Conceal and protect electrical cables to prevent exposure and tripping hazards.
– Use the right type of sockets and plugs for your electrical appliances and devices.
– Regularly inspect and maintain your electrical system to identify and fix any issues promptly.

2. Gas Safety:
– Ensure gas cylinders are properly closed and secured to prevent gas leaks.
– Regularly inspect gas lines and connections for any signs of wear, damage, or leakage.
– Install gas detectors or alarms in areas where gas is used to detect leaks early.

3. Fire Safety:
– Avoid using candles, mosquito coils, or boiling rings if possible, as these can be fire hazards. If you must use them, do so with extreme caution and never leave them unattended.
– Install smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in key areas of your home, such as the kitchen and bedrooms.

4. Medication Safety:
– Store all medications out of children’s reach and in childproof containers.
– Dispose of expired or unused medications properly, following local guidelines or recommendations.

5. Waste Disposal:
– Properly dispose of household waste in designated bins or recycling containers to maintain a clean and safe environment.
– Be aware of local waste disposal regulations and guidelines.

6. Bathroom Safety:
– Regularly clean and scrub bathroom floors to prevent slippery surfaces.
– Consider installing non-slip mats in the bathroom to reduce the risk of falls.
– Replace old or damaged bathroom tiles to maintain a safe and hygienic environment.

7. Electrical Appliance Safety:
– Before leaving the house or going to bed, check that all electrical gadgets and sockets are turned off and unplugged if possible.
– Consider using surge protectors to safeguard sensitive electronics and prevent electrical fires.

In addition to these measures, it’s essential to educate all household members about safety practices and emergency procedures. Regular safety drills and discussions can help ensure that everyone knows how to respond in case of an emergency. Always prioritize safety in your home to create a secure and comfortable living environment for you and your family.

Safety Measures in the School Environment

Possible accidents in a school environment are falling of ceiling fans, electric shock, breaking of swing chains, bruises from fall while running, burning of skin due to splash of chemicals during experiments in the laboratory, falling from staircase. etc.

The following are safety measures in the school environment

Safety measures in the school environment are crucial for the well-being of students, staff, and visitors. Here’s an expanded explanation of the safety measures you’ve mentioned:

1. Proper School Building Construction:
– Schools should be constructed following safety standards and regulations to ensure structural integrity and resistance to natural disasters like earthquakes or severe weather.

2. Fire Extinguishers:
– Fire extinguishers should be strategically placed throughout the school, especially in areas with a higher fire risk, such as laboratories, kitchens, and offices. Regular maintenance and staff training on fire extinguisher use are essential.

3. Supervision during Sporting Events:
– During inter-house sports or special sporting events, it’s essential to have qualified sports instructors or masters and, if possible, a nurse on standby to address any injuries or medical emergencies that may occur during the event.

4. Chemical Storage in Laboratories:
– Dangerous chemicals used in laboratories should be stored in specialized storage areas or rooms with restricted access. Proper labeling and safety protocols must be followed when handling and storing chemicals to prevent accidents.

5. Well-Ventilated Classrooms and School Halls:
– Adequate ventilation is crucial to maintain good indoor air quality and prevent the buildup of pollutants. Proper ventilation in classrooms and school halls helps create a comfortable and safe learning environment.

6. First Aid Kits:
– School clinics or health offices should be equipped with well-stocked first aid kits. These kits should include essential medical supplies and equipment to provide immediate assistance for minor injuries and medical emergencies.

Additional safety measures in schools may include:

– Regular fire drills and emergency evacuation procedures to prepare students and staff for potential emergencies.
– Safety training programs for teachers, staff, and students, covering topics such as fire safety, first aid, and chemical safety.
– Adequate security measures, including controlled access to the school premises and surveillance systems where necessary.
– Safety signage and clear emergency exit routes in school buildings.
– Maintenance and inspection of playground equipment to ensure they are safe for use.
– Implementation of anti-bullying and conflict resolution programs to promote a safe and respectful school environment.

It’s essential for school administrators, teachers, and staff to work together to create and maintain a safe learning environment where the physical, emotional, and psychological well-being of everyone is prioritized.

Safety Measures in a Work Place

Safety measures in the workplace are essential to protect employees, visitors, and the overall integrity of the business. Here are the safety measures you’ve mentioned, along with additional considerations:

1. Fire Extinguishers:
– Fire extinguishers should be strategically located throughout the workplace, especially in areas with a higher fire risk. They should be regularly inspected and maintained to ensure they are functional in case of a fire emergency.

2. Electrical Safety:
– Ensure that original, certified sockets, plugs, and electrical appliances are used in offices to prevent electrical hazards.
– Regularly inspect and maintain the electrical wiring and systems to prevent electrical faults and fires.

3. Smoking Policy:
– Establish a strict no-smoking policy within indoor office spaces to protect employees from the dangers of secondhand smoke and reduce fire hazards.
– Designate specific outdoor smoking areas equipped with proper disposal containers.

4. Proper Wiring:
– Ensure that the building is wired correctly, meeting safety codes and standards to prevent electrical accidents.
– Consider using surge protectors to safeguard sensitive electronic equipment.

5. Safety Training:
– Appoint a safety manager or designate responsible individuals to conduct periodic safety training for employees.
– Train employees on accident prevention, emergency response procedures, and the proper use of safety equipment.

6. Electrical Gadgets:
– Encourage employees to turn off all electrical gadgets, including computers, monitors, and other office equipment, after office hours to conserve energy and reduce fire risks.

Additional workplace safety measures may include:

– Hazardous materials storage and handling protocols to prevent chemical accidents.
– Ergonomic assessments and workstation adjustments to reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries.
– Adequate lighting and signage to prevent slips, trips, and falls.
– Regular equipment maintenance and inspection to ensure machinery and tools are safe to use.
– Emergency evacuation plans and drills to prepare employees for various emergency situations.
– Personal protective equipment (PPE) requirements, such as safety helmets, gloves, or eye protection, depending on the nature of the work.
– Reporting and investigating near misses and accidents to identify and address potential hazards.

Workplace safety is a shared responsibility among employers and employees. By implementing and adhering to safety measures, workplaces can significantly reduce the risk of accidents, injuries, and property damage while fostering a safer and more productive environment.

Traffic Guidelines

Cyclists and motorcyclists are vulnerable road users, and it’s crucial for their safety and the safety of others that they follow responsible practices. Here are the safety measures you’ve mentioned:

For Motorcyclists:

1. Wear Helmets: Wearing a helmet is one of the most important safety measures for motorcyclists. Helmets provide head protection in case of accidents and reduce the risk of serious head injuries.

2. Carry Only One Passenger: Carrying more than one passenger on a motorcycle can affect its stability and increase the risk of accidents. It’s generally recommended to carry only one passenger at a time, and the passenger should use appropriate safety gear, including a helmet.

3. Proper Motorcycle Maintenance: Regular maintenance of motorcycles is essential to ensure they are in good working condition. This includes checking brakes, tires, lights, and other critical components.

4. Observe Road Signs: Adhering to road signs and traffic rules is crucial for motorcyclists. Following speed limits, stopping at stop signs, and obeying traffic signals are essential for road safety.

5. Use Standard Horns: Avoid using abnormal or excessively loud horns on motorcycles. Use the horn as a warning signal when necessary, but ensure it is within legal limits and considerate of other road users.

6. Avoid Playing Music: It’s advisable not to play music while riding a motorcycle, as it can be distracting and reduce your ability to hear important sounds from the road, such as horns or sirens.

For Cyclists:

1. Wear Helmets: Just like motorcyclists, cyclists should wear helmets to protect their heads in case of falls or accidents.

2. Follow Traffic Rules: Cyclists should obey traffic rules and signals, including stopping at stop signs, yielding the right of way, and using hand signals for turning.

3. Use Lights and Reflectors: When cycling at night or in low-light conditions, use lights and reflectors to make yourself more visible to motorists.

4. Maintain Your Bicycle: Regularly inspect and maintain your bicycle, including checking the brakes, tires, and gears to ensure they are in good working order.

5. Avoid Riding on Sidewalks: In some places, it’s illegal or discouraged for adult cyclists to ride on sidewalks. Check local regulations and use bike lanes or roads when available.

6. Stay Alert: Pay close attention to your surroundings and other road users. Avoid distractions and keep both hands on the handlebars.

By adhering to these safety measures, cyclists and motorcyclists can significantly reduce the risk of accidents and injuries while enjoying the benefits of two-wheeled transportation. Safety should always be a top priority on the road.


Responsible behavior on the road is crucial for the safety of motorists, passengers, and other road users. Here are the safety measures you’ve mentioned for motorists:

1. Wear Seat Belts: Always wear seat belts when driving, and ensure that all passengers in the vehicle are also properly restrained. Seat belts significantly reduce the risk of injury in the event of a collision.

2. Obey Road Signs and Rules: Strictly adhere to all road signs, traffic signals, and rules of the road. This includes obeying speed limits, yielding the right of way, and stopping at stop signs.

3. Don’t Drink and Drive: Never drink alcohol before or during driving. Alcohol impairs judgment, coordination, and reaction times, making it dangerous to operate a vehicle while under the influence.

4. Avoid Phone Use While Driving: It’s important to avoid making or receiving phone calls, texting, or using mobile devices while driving. Distracted driving is a leading cause of accidents.

5. Observe Speed Limits: Stay within the posted speed limits and adjust your speed to match road and weather conditions. Speeding increases the severity of accidents and reduces reaction time.

6. Regular Vehicle Maintenance: Properly maintain and service your vehicle at regular intervals. This includes checking brakes, tires, lights, and other critical components to ensure they are in good working condition.

Additional safety measures for motorists may include:

– Keeping a safe following distance behind the vehicle in front of you to allow for sudden stops.
– Being mindful of pedestrians, cyclists, and motorcyclists and giving them adequate space on the road.
– Using turn signals and indicators to signal your intentions to other drivers.
– Avoiding aggressive driving behaviors such as tailgating and road rage.
– Adapting to adverse weather conditions by reducing speed and increasing following distance.

By following these safety measures and practicing responsible driving habits, motorists can contribute to safer roadways and reduce the risk of accidents and injuries. Road safety is a collective responsibility that benefits everyone on the road.


Pedestrian safety is crucial, especially when walking near or across roads. Here are the safety measures for pedestrians that you’ve mentioned:

1. Wear Bright Coloured Clothing at Night: When walking at night or in low-light conditions, pedestrians should wear bright or reflective clothing to make themselves more visible to motorists. This enhances safety, as it’s easier for drivers to see pedestrians.

2. Use Pedestrian Bridges and Crosswalks: Pedestrians should use designated pedestrian bridges, crosswalks, and zebra crossing points when available. These designated areas are designed to provide a safe path for pedestrians to cross roads.

3. Stay on Road Pavement: When walking on or alongside the road, pedestrians should use the sidewalk or footpath if provided. If there is no sidewalk, walk on the side of the road, facing oncoming traffic. This allows pedestrians to see approaching vehicles and vice versa.

4. Look Left, Right, and Left Again: Before crossing a road, pedestrians should always check for incoming traffic by looking left, right, and left again. This helps ensure that no vehicles are approaching from either direction.

5. Walk Opposite Traffic: When walking on a road that doesn’t have a sidewalk, pedestrians should walk on the side of the road facing incoming traffic. This allows pedestrians to see vehicles approaching them, giving them more time to react and move out of the way if necessary.

Additional safety tips for pedestrians include:

– Avoid distractions, such as using smartphones or listening to loud music, while walking near traffic.
– Cross roads at marked crosswalks or intersections whenever possible.
– Make eye contact with drivers to ensure they see you before crossing in front of a vehicle.
– Use hand signals or make clear intentions when crossing the road.
– Be cautious when crossing multi-lane roads; check each lane individually for traffic before proceeding.

Pedestrians play a critical role in their own safety by following these guidelines and being alert and responsible while walking near or across roads. Motorists should also be attentive to pedestrians and yield the right of way when required, ensuring the safety of all road users.

Agencies to be Contacted when Accidents Occur

In Nigeria, when accidents occur, there are several agencies and organizations that can be contacted depending on the nature and severity of the accident. Here is a list of some of the key agencies to contact:

1. Nigeria Police Force: The police should be notified in the event of any accident, especially if there are injuries, fatalities, or if the accident involves criminal activities, such as hit and run.

2. Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC): The FRSC is responsible for road safety and traffic management. They should be informed about accidents on federal highways, especially if there are injuries or fatalities, as they can provide assistance and investigate the accident.

3. Fire Brigade: In the case of fires or situations where there is a risk of fire, such as vehicle accidents involving fuel spillage, contact the local fire brigade for immediate assistance.

4. National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA): NEMA is responsible for coordinating emergency responses and providing relief during disasters and emergencies. They should be contacted for major accidents and disasters.

5. Nigerian Red Cross Society: The Red Cross provides first aid and medical assistance to accident victims. They can also assist with evacuation and provide support during emergencies.

6. Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA): LASTMA is specific to Lagos State and is responsible for traffic management and enforcement within the state. Contact them for accidents that occur in Lagos.

Remember that in the event of an accident, the safety and well-being of individuals involved should be the top priority. Depending on the severity of the accident, you may need to contact multiple agencies to ensure a coordinated response and appropriate assistance for those in need. Always follow local emergency procedures and guidelines when responding to accidents.

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