Plantation agriculture can be defined as the cultivation of certain crops (usually Cash crops) on a large area of land.
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CROPS INVOLVED IN PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
It involves the planting of perennial crops such as Cocoa, Rubber, Oil palm, Tea, Coffee etc.
CHARACTERISTIC OF PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
- It requires a large area of land.
- It requires a large labour force.
- It involves the cultivation of one type of Crop only on a piece of land (MONOCULTURE).
- Crops produced are mainly exported.
- All farm operations are mechanized.
- It requires large capital to operate.
- They are mainly owned by government and large foreign or local companies.
FACTORS FAVOURABLE FOR PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
- Sub equatorial type of climate with adequate rainfall.
- Fertility of the soil especially the volcanic soil in East Africa.
- Availability of cheap labour and adequate capital.
- Availability of good transport network.
- Presence of large Markets to consume or use the products.
- What is plantation agriculture?
- Mention crops that are cultivated in this system of agriculture.
IMPORTANCE OF PLANTATION FARMING
- Crops produced provide raw materials for Industries.
- It is a source of income to the farmers.
- It provides employment to many people.
- Farmers learn and acquire new skills.
- They are centers of Agricultural research.
- Cash crops like coca, rubber, tea, coffee when exported, yield foreign exchange for the country.
PROBLEMS OF PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
- Difficulties in acquisition of large expanse of land.
- It leads to education of land for town development.
- Inadequate capital and labour (skilled and unskilled).
- Price fluctuation. i.e. unstable price of crops in the world market.
- Pest and diseases-diseases spread fast because of the monocultural nature and the permanent location of the farms.
SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS
- Provision of loans or credit facilities.
- Government participation.
- Provision of roads and other infrastructures.
- Proper management to prevent outbreak of diseases.
AREAS OF PLANTATION
In East Africa
- Tea and tobacco plantation in Kenya
- Coffee plantation in Uganda
- Sisal in Tanga District and Coastal area in Tanzania
- Sugar cane in Tanzania and Uganda
In West Africa
- Cocoa plantation in Ibadan and Akure in Nigeria, Kunasi in Ghana
- Rubber in Benin, Howbel (Liberia)
- Oil plantation in Aba, Okitipupu
- Mention problems of plantation agriculture.
- State three characteristic of plantation Agriculture.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- Mention four crops produced in plantation Agriculture.
- State three problems of plantation Agriculture and in what ways can these problems be solved.
- Mention some areas of plantation agriculture in Africa.
- State the economic importance of plantation farming.
- Highlight factors favourable for plantation farming.
- Which of the following West Africa Countries is the largest produce of groundnut (a) Burkina Faso (b) Mali (c) Ghana
- Monoculture is a term associated with (a) Grable farming (b) Mixed farming (c) Plantation Agriculture
- The most important cash crops grown in the Nile Basin is (a)Barley (b) Cotton (c) Groundnut.
- All of the following are true of plantation Agriculture in West Africa except that (a) It involves the planting of food crops (b) Required modern technology (c) Involves large areas of food
- Which of the following is not a crop grown on plantation farm (a) Cocoa (b) Sisal (c) Maize
- State three characteristics of plantation Agriculture.
- Mention four crops produced in plantation Agriculture