: Fruit farming is defined as the type of farming in which farmers cultivate mainly fruit crops for domestic, industrial or commercial purposes. It is sometimes called orchard farming.
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Favourable Factors of Fruit Farming
- The presence of Mediterranean climate favours fruit farming in the regions.
- Presence of bright, sunny, weather with hot, dry summers and wet winters.
iii. Presence of dry-warm summer temperature of 210C-270C.
- Abundance of rainfall in winter of 25-75cm per annum.
- Prominence of local sirocco and mistral winds in Mediterranean region.
- Availability of local and foreign markets for the products.
vii. The use of irrigation schemes to support insufficient rainfall.
viii Government assistance in fruit farming.
- The use of advanced method and modern technologies to cultivate fruits.
- Presence of fertile volcanic crystalline and terra rossa soils which encourage fruit farming.
Types of fruits produced
- In North-West Africa: Fruits grown include: apricots, grapes, oranges, olive, lemon, limes and tangerines.
- In South Africa: Fruits cultivated include vine, grapes, apples, pears, oranges, pineapples, peaches, apricots etc.
Importance of Fruit Farming
Some of the importance of Fruit Farming in south and North-West Africa include:
- Provision of foreign exchange through export of wine.
- It provides employment to many people.
- It provides raw-materials for fruit canning and processing industries.
- It provides wine that is consumed locally and internationally.
- Viticulture, the cultivation of grape fruit promotes specialization.
- What is Fruit Farming?
- Mention three (3) importance of Fruit Farming.
Major Areas of Fruit Farming
- In South Africa: Areas here include: Elgin in cape Town, Natal, Orange Free State.
- In North-West Africa: Areas here include Tunisia, Algeria, Libya and Morocco.
Major Problems of Fruit Farming
- Rainfall is unreliable in the Mediterranean region. This affects the growth of fruits.
- Improper storage and processing can lead to poor quality of fruit products.
iii. There is the problem of competition in quality with other wines produced in Europe.
- Soil erosion during the summer season affects.
- Fruits is highly perishable. Over production of them can lead to spoilage and loss.
Note: Fruit Farming is more popular and lucrative in South Africa than in North-West Africa because:
- Massive Government Assistance.
- The High demand of fruits in Europe in winter, when it is unable to produce fruits. This is summer time in South-Africa when harvest is taken place.
- South Africa is closer to Europe. This location advantage increases the sales of fruits in South Africa.
- There is higher demand of fruits in South-Africa.
(i) Mention any three factors that favour the cultivation of fruit farming in the Mediterranean region of Africa.
(ii) Highlight any two major problems facing fruit farming in the region.
GENERAL EVALUATION QUESTIONS
- Mention the areas of fruit farming in Africa.
- State the crops that are commonly cultivated.
- What are the problems facing fruit farming?
- How can these problems be solved?
- State the economic importance of fruit farming.
- Fruit farming is sometimes called ____ farming. (a) pastoral (b) Arable (c) Orchand
- One of these favours fruit farming. (a) Heavy rainfall (b) Presence of harmattan (c) Presence of dry-warm summer temperature
- One of these is not a major fruit in Mediterranean region of Africa.
(a) Apricots (b) Orange (c) Kolanut
- Viticulture is the cultivation of ……… (a) grapes (b) cereals (c) tubers
- One of these is a major problem of fruit farming. (a) Soil erosion (b) Deforestation (c) Tse-tse flies
- Highlight any three factors that favour fruit farming in Mediterranean Africa.
- Why is fruit farming more popular in South Africa than in North Africa?