People commit lots of offenses in their activities or relationships with others that are punishable by law. There are various types and degrees of offenses commensurate with their punishment.
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There are two classes of offenses (1) Criminal offenses and (2) Civic offenses
There are severe offences with severe penalties. Though citizen must be tried in the court of law and found guilty of such offences before punishment is metes out with respect of the provision of law. Criminal offences include crimes like bribery, drug trafficking, corruption and human trafficking. Criminal offences may attract jail term and death penalties.
They are less critical offences yet they attract penalties. They include libel prostitution, slander, sanitation offences and so on. They are punishable by impressing fire and shat detension sentences. The state and the rule of law: In this context, ‘state’ means the nation or country. Institution or arms of government that help in formulating and enforcement of the rule of law includes the legislature, executive, judiciary and the law enforcement agencies such as police, EFCC, ICFC and so on.
This aim of government makes for a country.
Legislature and the rule of law
In formulating and enforcing the rule of law the legislature.
- Makes necessary laws that help in protecting the rule of law
- Make amendments to constitution when necessary
- Helps in establishing law enforcement agencies like NAFDAC, EFCC, NHRC, INEC etc.
- Has power to impeach the president in case he abuse power
- Has the power to investigate financial activities of any government departments.
This aim of government implements and enforces the law and other government politics.
THE ROLE IN ENFORCING AND FORMULATING THE LAW
- It protects lives and properties through law enforcement agents like the police, NAFDAC etc.
- It helps in implanting all laws made by the legislature
- The president with his cabinet has the duty to defend the constitution
- It advices the legislature when there is need to amend the constitution (electrical laws in Nigeria was amended before April 2012 general election)
- Imposes curfew whenever there is chaos and commotion in the country.
3. THE JUDICIARY:
The judiciary interprets the law
THE ROLE OF THE JUDICIARY INCLUDES
- It helps in interpreting the law
- It fights against any constitutional abuse or violation by other arms of government, individual or organisations.
- It punishes violation of the law
- It determines the quality and punish them accordingly
- It has power to release anyone unjustly detained.
The police has right to enforce the laws preserve peace, reduce fear and provide for a safe environment partnership with the communities to enforce quality of life is also part of their responsibilities.
ROLES OF POLICE
- Protect lives and properties
- Protects and arrest suspects
- Maintain law and order in the society
- Settle minor disputes that may culminate into breakdown of law and order
- Fights crime by preventing it and by rigorous pursuit of violates of law
- Investigate criminal cases and presents suspect in court.
THE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRIMES COMMISSION (EFCC)
This was set up in 2002. It focus on combining financial and economic crimes. The commission is empowered to prevent, investigate and penalize economic and financial crimes. It also enforce other laws and regulations relations to economic or financial environs such as embezzlement of public funds, fraud etc.
THE INDEPENDENT CORRUPT PRACTICES COMMUNICATION (ICPC)
This communication was established on September, 29th 2000 to compliants, investigates and persecute corrupt people. It is also to enlighten the public about the fight against bribery, corruption and related offences. The major role of the commission is to make Nigeria socially free from corruption in forms of misappropriation of fund and illegal punishment.
THE NATIONAL AGENCIES FOR FOOD AND DRUGS ADMISSION AND CONTROL (NAFDAC)
NAFDAC was established by decree of 1993 but officially established a parastatar of the Federal Ministry of Health in January 1st, 1994 to regulate and control the quality of foods, drugs, cosmetics, median services, chemical detergent and packaged water imported and locally made distributed in Nigeria.
FUNCTIONS OF NAFDAC
- Regulatory Functions: it control importation of exportation, manufacture, advertisement, distribution, sales of drugs, cosmetics etc.
- Inspection Functions: It inspects imported goods, drugs, cosmestics etc. by establishing the quality and certifies production site of production.
- Registration Functions: It registers food, drugs, bottled water and chemicals.
- Investigation Functions: Investigate production premises and raw materials for food and drugs.
THE NATIONAL DRUG AND LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY (NDLEA)
It was established by decree 48 of 2000. It was the sole of agency for drug enforcements in Nigeria.
FUNCTIONS OF NDLEA
- The co-ordination of all drug laws and enforcement function conferred on any person and authority.
- Adoption of measures of eradicating illegal cultivation of narcotic plants and eliminate illicit demand for them and psychotropic substances
- Maintenance of investigation and control techniques
- Improving on eradition efforts
- Improving enforcement of laws against illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.
- Elements and preventing major causes of the problems of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.