A federation or a federal system on in which there is constitutional division or three tires of government (Federal, State/region and local government). In a federation, the central (federal in Nigeria) represents the whole country and act on behalf of all in common matters like defence, external affairs, currency, and national revenue and so on. A federation is a system of government which government power that exists in the country is shared between a central government and other components governments.
The name Nigeria was given by Miss. Floral Shaw (later Mrs. Lugard) in her essay which first appeared. In times of January 1897, Nigeria started to exist at the amalgamation of Northern and Southern protection. Nigeria is the 99th member of the United Nation organisation since October 1st, 1960 became a federal republic on October 1st, 1963.
Currently Nigeria has 36 states which include Abia, Anambra, Zamfara, Lagos etc. There are 774 local government. Other countries practising federal system of government include Switzerland, USA, Australia, Canada.
Division of functions among the three tiers of government according to the constitution are as follows:
- The Exclusive list: power and functions in this list are reserved for the central government alone to exercise. The list includes: defence, currency, foreign affairs, immigration customs, mining, police force and so on.
- Concurrent list: This list of functions are shared by both central and state government. In the event of conflict in exercising these functions. Central government’s decision supercedes or prevails over that of the state government. The list includes labour, road, insurance, higher education, research, in distance development among thers.
- The residual list: this list of function are exercised by the states government and local government. This include markets, motor parms, chieftaincy affairs, minor roads, material and heatch centres, primary education, library.
NEEDS FOR A FEDERATION
- Geographical size: government becomes effective as the divisions of function lessen the burden on the central government words. The burden of the central government is reduced because functions are divided. It allows for easy monitoring of state and local areas and as a result glass root are well cared for.
- Economic factor: there is the need to pool resources of the religion together for a strong and vibrant economy.
- Minority: protecting the interest the aspiration of the minority calls for the adoption of a federal.
- National integration: the component units of Nigeria need to be united and tilled as one entity. The central government see to the even development of all the state and local government. It marks polities that will unite the country like the constituation, NYSC to for everybody and coordinate the economic and political activities of other components.
- Unity in diversity: with over 250 ethnic groups in Nigeria, the federal government established unity school throughout the federation bringing children from different of the country together as well as the federal character.
Mention any 5 reasons for the adoption of a federal system