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What is Water?

Chemically a molecule of water is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom held together by covalent bonds. Water is precious to man’s existence as it is needed in agriculture, sports, industry, and domestic affairs. Water may be hard or soft. Hard water is not good economically as more soap is needed to form lather. When water is free from mineral salts, such water is called soft water as it dissolves soap quickly.

Sources of Water Supply

The two major sources of water supply to man are:

  1. Surface Water
  2. Ground Water


Surface Water Supplies

Surface water supply are abundant and easily accessible. They are however prone to pollution from human transport, industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes.

Sources of surface water supply include the following:

  1. Rain water
  2. River water
  3. Lakes, ponds and streams


Ground Water Supplies

Ground water supply are lodged in the earth. They are not easily accessible, except through the use of wells, boreholes and taps. Ground water are the cleanest sources of water.

Sources of ground water supply include the following:

  1. Shallow well
  2. Deep well.


Qualities of Good Water Supply

  1. It must be odourless
  2. It must be tasteless
  3. It must be colourless
  4. It must be free from pathogens
  5. It must contain acceptable mineral composition


Uses of Water

Water is used for the following:

  1. For drinking
  2. For bathing for healthy living
  3. For cooking
  4. For washing of clothes
  5. For cleaning and flushing of toilets
  6. As a means of transportation
  7. Used for sporting activities. E.g. swimming, water pool, etc.



  1. List five sources of water supply.
  2. List three qualities of good water.
  3. What are the uses of water?


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