History and Development of Soccer

The true origin of soccer is difficult to determine but soccer otherwise known as football could be linked to the Greeks and Romans. The game was later brought to England by the Romans Soldiers. In 1863, the London Football Association established the first set of rules of the game. The English called it “Association Football”, while the Americans called it “soccer”.


The Nigeria Football Association (N.F.A) was established in 1945. The body responsible for the rules of the game, is F.I.F.A, that is, the Federation of International football Association. It was founded in 1904 in Zurich, Switzerland.


Soccer is an international game played by 2 teams of 11 players aside. Substitutes of 7-11 players are allowed depending on the governing body but in an international competition or championship maximum of three players are allowed as substitutes. A player can play the ball with any part of the body except the hand and arms. However, this does not apply to the goal keeper. It is started with a “kick off” in the centre circle of a rectangular field having goal areas, penalty areas, corner areas, and the goal posts.


Basic Skills and Techniques in Soccer

Basic skills and techniques involved in soccer are;

  1. Kicking.
  2. Passing.
  3. Dribbling.
  4. Throw-in.
  5. Trapping.
  6. Heading.
  7. Tackling.
  8. Goal-keeping


Rules and Regulations of Soccer

(a) The 10 penal offences are

  1. Kicking or attempt to kick an opponent
  2. Tripping an opponent
  3. Jumping at an opponent
  4. Charging an opponent dangerously
  5. Holding an opponent by hand or arm
  6. Striking or attempt to strike an opponent
  7. Handling the ball
  8. Pushing an opponent by hand or arm
  9. Using offensive, insulting or abusive language
  10. Tackle an opponent in a dangerous manner

(b) Off-side rule: A player is said to be off-side when he is nearer to his opponent goal line than the ball unless there are two or more defenders (apart from goal keeper) nearer their own goal line than him.

(c) Penalty Kick: This is awarded when any of the 10 penal offences is committed by the defending team inside the “box eighteen”.

(d) Duration of Game: Two equal periods of 45minutes each. The interval at half time is 15 minutes


Soccer Officials and their Functions

  1. The referee
  2. Two assistant referees
  3. Match commissioner
  4. Reserve referee

The Referee

  1. Takes full control of the game
  2. Cautions players and keep a record of the game
  3. His decision is final
  4. Acts as time keeper and enforces rules and regulation of the game
  5. Rejects unsuitable match equipment.

The Assistant Referee

He gives a signal to the referee;

  1. when the ball is out of play.
  2. when there is a corner.
  3. when a side is entitled to the throw-in.
  4. when a player is off-side.


Facilities and Equipment Used in Soccer

(i) The field

Maximum Minimum
Length 120m 110m
Width 90m 75m

(ii) The ball

(iii) Players shoes/boot, jersey, stockings, short, shin guard.

(iv) Goal post – Length 7.32m, Height 2.44m.

(v) Goal net.

(vi) Technical Equipment – whistle, red and yellow cards.


Common Injuries in Soccer

  1. Fracture (wrist, ankle, bones of the fore arm)
  2. Dislocation
  3. Muscle cramps
  4. Strain
  5. Bruises


Values of Soccer

The following are the values of soccer:

  1. Development of safety skill and habits.
  2. Physical fitness and strength development.
  3. It helps in generating income.
  4. It boosts mental accuracy and coordination.
  5. Soccer is played for the fun and enjoyment.



  1. What is another name for soccer?
  2. List the eleven players with their full description.


See also





Contact and Non – Contact Sports

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Get Fully Funded Scholarships

Free Visa, Free Scholarship Abroad

           Click Here to Apply