# HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF COMPUTING DEVICES 2

## JACQUARD’S LOOM (FEATURES, COMPONENT AND USES)

The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom, invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801. This loom simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with complex patterns such as brocade, damask and matelassé. The loom is controlled by punched cards with punched holes, each row of which corresponds to one row of the design. Multiple rows of holes are punched on each card and the many cards that compose the design of the textile are strung together.

## CHARLES BABBAGE

Charles Babbage (1791-1871) was born 26 Dec 1791, the son of London banker. Babbage put forward an idea of a machine that could do 60 calculations per second. This analytical engine stamped the foundation of the modern computing. Therefore Babbage is often considered the father of modern computers. On his 200th birth anniversary, 1st of November 1991, the scientist and engineers built the difference Engine No. 2 based on his sound idea in his memory.

### The Computer Contains the following features

1.     Sequential control of arithmetic operation

2.     Punched cards which formed a record of the programme or the steps which the engines was to follow.

3.     Memory (1000 words of 50 digits)

4.     Arithmetic Unit

5.     Input

6.     Output

## ANALYTICAL ENGINE (COMPONENT, FEATURES AND USES)

The analytical engine, a new kind of mechanical computer that could do complex calculations, including multiplication and division. The basic parts of the analytical engine resemble the components of any computer in the market today. It featured two hallmarks of any modern machine. A CPU and Mill and memory was known as the “store”. Reader to input instructions as well as a way to record, on paper, results generated by the machine. Babbage called the output device a printer, the precursor of ink jet and laser printer so common today.

## HOLLERITH CENSUS MACHINE

Herman Hollerith’s tabulator consisted of electrically operated components that captured and processed census data by reading holes on paper punch cards. The primary components of the system are

1.      Pantograph: used to transfer census information from the census schedules to paper punch cards.

3.      Sorting table: After registering the punch card data on the dials, the sorter specified which drawer the operator places the punch card.

## BURROUGH’S MACHINES

William Burroughts built his first experimental model of an adding machine with printed output in 1884

### Components and features

The distinguishing features are the high sloping keyboard, the beveled glass front, and the printing mechanism out of sight at the rear of the machine. The machine performs additions only, with no provision for subtraction either directly or by addition of complement.

There are two large keys on the left-hand side for totals and sub-totals, and three smaller keys for non-add.

## Assessment

·      List the different pre computing devices?

·      State the components in each of the device mentioned above?

·      State what each device was used for in those days?

Teacher gives correction on the evaluation test and summarizes the lesson. Teacher allows students to ask question to for better understanding and to clear doubt.

## ASSIGNMENT

1.      Describe what an Abacus looks like and its use

2.      State the components the slide rule, Pascal calculator is made of

3.      Make a research online on  Jacquards 100m and Charles babbage

ABACUS DEVICE

Computer Hardware and Software

Constituents Parts of a Computer System

Logic Gate

Logic Gate